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Title: 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel

Abstract

Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.

Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5204591
Alternate Identifier(s):
OSTI ID: 5204591
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Chem. Week; (United States); Journal Volume: 129:4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; DIESEL FUELS; FUEL SUBSTITUTION; FUEL OILS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS; OILS; BRAZIL; COCONUTS; ENERGY BALANCE; PHILIPPINES; SOUTH AFRICA; SOYBEANS; SUNFLOWERS; USA; VEGETABLES; AFRICA; ASIA; DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; FOOD; FRUITS; FUELS; ISLANDS; LATIN AMERICA; LIQUID FUELS; NORTH AMERICA; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PETROLEUM PRODUCTS; PLANTS; SOUTH AMERICA 140504* -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Biomass Production & Conversion-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Not Available. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Not Available. 'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel. United States.
Not Available. Wed . "'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5204591,
title = {'Vegetable' substitutes for diesel fuel},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {Research programs in the US, Brazil, South Africa and the Philippines on efforts to find a vegetable oil substitute for diesel fuel are reported. A narrowing price gap with diesel fuel and a favourable energy balance improve the prospects for such fuels. Much of the current work is centered on blends, rather than the use of the pure oil.},
doi = {},
journal = {Chem. Week; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 129:4,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jul 22 00:00:00 EDT 1981},
month = {Wed Jul 22 00:00:00 EDT 1981}
}
  • Five different vegetable oils tested are acceptable substitutes for diesel fuel in short term performance tests. Long term tests show that engine life appears to be related to fatty acid content and viscosity of the oil used. Chemical and physical characteristics of the oils are included. 16 refs.
  • The feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and for a diesel fuel substitute has primarily been discussed in terms of the major oilseed producing areas. The Northeast region of the United States is a major agricultural producing area which imports large quantities of soybean meal for cattle feed. This paper considers the technical and economic feasibility of producing oilseeds for feed and fuel in New York State, which is selected as a case study for the region. The possible crops considered for expanded production are sunflowers, soybeans, and flax. It is found that if enough oilseeds are grown to replacemore » 25% of the diesel fuel used on farms, then at most 5% of the cropland would have to be converted to oilseeds, and meal would not be produced in excess of the amount currently used. The cost of producing oil is calculated as the cost of producing the seed plus the cost of processing minus the value of the meal. Enterprise budgets are developed for estimating oilseed production costs in New York State. The cost of processing is estimated for both an industrial-size plant, which does not now exist in New York, and a small on-farm plant. It is found that the diesel fuel and vegetable oil prices would have to rise substantially before oilseeds were produced in the Northeast region for feed and fuel. Moreover, the construction of an oilseed processing facility would not necessarily stimulate production of oilseeds in the region. 22 references.« less
  • Four different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). Blends were investigated in a diesel engine with a precombustion chamber at speeds between 1,200 and 2,100 rpm. Vegetable oils, diesel fuel, and fuel blends were characterized according to standard test methods. It was found that for short-term use, the fuel blends have engine characteristics similar to the baseline diesel fuel. Fuel blends also display less smoke emissions than diesel fuel.
  • For different types of vegetable oils of Turkish origin (sunflower, corn, soybean, and olive oil) were blended with grade No. 2-D diesel fuel at a ratio of 20/80 (v/v). The effect of the compression ratio on exhaust emissions is investigated in an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)-cooperative fuel research (CFR) engine working with the mentioned fuel blends and a baseline diesel fuel. A decrease in soot, CO, CO{sub 2}, and HC emissions and an increase in NO{sub x} emissions have been observed for fuel blends compared to diesel fuel.
  • Vegetable oils provide diesel engine performance similar to that obtained with diesel fuel, and this has been documented in many prior publications. Because they are potentially interchangeable with diesel fuel, interest has focused on vegetable oils as short-range alternate fuels. However, engine durability when burning vegetable oils may be adversely affected depending on the type of combustion system employed. Laboratory and field experimental tests have identified the prechamber engine as having the greatest short-range potential for using vegetable oil fuels. Performance and durability at low engine ratings are essentially the same as expected for operation on diesel fuel. However, atmore » high engine ratings piston ring and cylinder linear wear are greater than expected for operation on diesel fuel. A laboratory program was successfully completed which resulted in a combustion system that would allow the higher rated prechamber engines to achieve normal life when burning 100% soybean oil. Fluid model tests utilizing high speed photography, single-cylinder engine tests utilizing fuel tracers, and a 200-hour multicylinder durability test were included. Extended endurance tests and experience with other vegetable oils are still required.« less