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Title: Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia (in Spanish)

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. (Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidad del Estado del Rio de Janeiro (Brasil))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5194274
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana; (United States); Journal Volume: 110:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
Spanish
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; BRAZIL; AIR POLLUTION; PARTICULATES; HEALTH HAZARDS; PNEUMONIA; EPIDEMIOLOGY; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; INFANTS; MORTALITY; REGRESSION ANALYSIS; SOCIO-ECONOMIC FACTORS; AGE GROUPS; CHILDREN; DEVELOPING COUNTRIES; DISEASES; HAZARDS; INSTITUTIONAL FACTORS; LATIN AMERICA; MATHEMATICS; MONITORING; PARTICLES; POLLUTION; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM DISEASES; SOUTH AMERICA; STATISTICS 540120* -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 560300 -- Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology

Citation Formats

Penna, M.L., and Duchiade, M.P.. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia. United States: N. p., 1991. Web.
Penna, M.L., & Duchiade, M.P.. Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia. United States.
Penna, M.L., and Duchiade, M.P.. 1991. "Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5194274,
title = {Air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia},
author = {Penna, M.L. and Duchiade, M.P.},
abstractNote = {This study examines the relationship between air pollution, measured as concentration of suspended particulates in the atmosphere, and infant mortality due to pneumonia in the metropolitan area of Rio de Janeiro. Multiple linear regression (progressive or stepwise method) was used to analyze infant mortality due to pneumonia, diarrhea, and all causes in 1980, by geographic area, income level, and degree of contamination. While the variable proportion of families with income equivalent to more than two minimum wages was included in the regressions corresponding to the three types of infant mortality, the average contamination index had a statistically significant coefficient (b = 0.2208; t = 2.670; P = 0.0137) only in the case of mortality due to pneumonia. This would suggest a biological association, but, as in any ecological study, such conclusions should be viewed with caution. The authors believe that air quality indicators are essential to consider in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.},
doi = {},
journal = {Boletin de la Oficina Sanitaria Panamericana; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 110:3,
place = {United States},
year = 1991,
month = 3
}
  • The authors report the results of an investigation into the possible association between air pollution and infant mortality from pneumonia in the Rio de Janeiro Metropolitan Area. This investigation employed multiple linear regression analysis (stepwise method) for infant mortality from pneumonia in 1980, including the study population's areas of residence, incomes, and pollution exposure as independent variables. With the income variable included in the regression, a statistically significant association was observed between the average annual level of particulates and infant mortality from pneumonia. While this finding should be accepted with caution, it does suggest a biological association between these variables.more » The authors' conclusion is that air quality indicators should be included in studies of acute respiratory infections in developing countries.« less
  • In Xuanwei County, China, unvented indoor coal burning is strongly associated with increased risk of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the impact of coal burning and stove improvement on risk of pneumonia is not clear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all farmers born 1917 through 1951 and living in Xuanwei as of 1 January 1976. The analysis included a total of 42,422 cohort members. Follow-up identified all deaths in the cohort from 1976 through 1996. Ages at entry into and at exit from follow-up ranged from 24 to 59 years and from 25 to 80more » years, respectively. The record search detected 225 deaths from pneumonia, and 32,332 (76%) were alive as of 31 December 1996. We constructed multivariable Cox models (time variable = age) to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Use of coal, especially smokeless coal, was positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Annual tonnage and lifetime duration of smoky and smokeless coal use were positively associated with pneumonia mortality. Stove improvement was associated with a 50% reduction in pneumonia deaths (smoky coal users: HR, 0.521; 95% CI, 0.340-0.798; smokeless coal users: HR, 0.449; 95% CI, 0.215-0.937). Our analysis is the first to suggest that indoor air pollution from unvented coal burning is an important risk factor for pneumonia death in adults and that improving ventilation by installing a chimney is an effective measure to decrease it.« less