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Title: Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota

Abstract

Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the countrymore » rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2]
  1. (South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Rapid City, SD (USA))
  2. (Pacific Northwest Laboratories, Richland, WA (USA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5181330
DOE Contract Number:
FG01-84ER13259; AC06-76RL01830
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta; (USA); Journal Volume: 52:7
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
58 GEOSCIENCES; SCHISTS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; HYDROTHERMAL ALTERATION; MINERALOGY; SOUTH DAKOTA; GEOCHEMISTRY; GEOLOGIC HISTORY; GRAPHITE; MASS BALANCE; MASS TRANSFER; PETROGENESIS; QUARTZ; ROCK-FLUID INTERACTIONS; CARBON; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMISTRY; ELEMENTAL MINERALS; ELEMENTS; FEDERAL REGION VIII; METAMORPHIC ROCKS; MINERALS; NONMETALS; NORTH AMERICA; OXIDE MINERALS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; ROCKS; SILICON COMPOUNDS; SILICON OXIDES; USA; 580000* - Geosciences

Citation Formats

Galbreath, K.C., Duke, E.F., Papike, J.J., and Laul, J.C. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota. United States: N. p., 1988. Web. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(88)90014-2.
Galbreath, K.C., Duke, E.F., Papike, J.J., & Laul, J.C. Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota. United States. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(88)90014-2.
Galbreath, K.C., Duke, E.F., Papike, J.J., and Laul, J.C. Fri . "Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota". United States. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(88)90014-2.
@article{osti_5181330,
title = {Mass transfer during wall-rock alteration: An example from a quartz-graphite vein, Black Hills, South Dakota},
author = {Galbreath, K.C. and Duke, E.F. and Papike, J.J. and Laul, J.C.},
abstractNote = {Mass transfer and fluid-rock interaction have been evaluated along two sample traverses in low-sillimanite grade quartz-mica schist adjacent to a synmetamorphic quartz-graphite vein in the southern Black Hills, South Dakota. In an {approximately}17 cm halo between apparently unaltered schist and the vein contact is an outer zone of cryptic alteration and three inner zones of visible alteration. The cryptic zone consists of the original prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage plus anomalously high amounts of tourmaline. The outermost visible zone contains abundant graphite. The second visible zone is defined by intensive bleaching of the schist. The innermost visible zone, immediately adjacent to the vein, is tourmaline + quartz + plagioclase + limonite + graphite. The vein is composed almost entirely of quartz, but also contains trace amounts of graphite. Mass balance calculations indicate that Al was essentially inert. The predominant chemical changes during wall-rock alteration were addition of B and C from the vein-forming fluid along with loss of K from the wall rocks, corresponding to precipitation of tourmaline and graphite, and the progressive destruction of microcline, biotite, and muscovite toward the vein. In addition, the elements V, Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Sb, W, and Au were introduced into the country rock, whereas Si, Rb, Ba, and Cs were removed. Fluid-rock interaction modeling suggests that between one and four equivalent masses of fluid interacted chemically with the most altered mineral assemblages. In addition, greater than one equivalent mass of reactive fluid penetrated to distances of at least 5 cm from the vein contact.},
doi = {10.1016/0016-7037(88)90014-2},
journal = {Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 52:7,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1988},
month = {Fri Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1988}
}