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Title: Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground water chemistry. I. Inorganic constituents

Abstract

Definite areal, vertical, and temporal differences were observed in the ground water chemistry of a 62 km/sup 2/ area in Nebraska's Platte Valley. A network of 53 wells was monitored 10 times between July 1975 and July 1976 for dissolved solids, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, NO/sub 3/-N, PO/sub 4/-P, SiO/sub 2/, pH, and temperature. Areal differences were most pronounced in the shallow ground water and reflected upgradient land use and soil type. Average total dissolved solids (TDS) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO/sub 3/-N) concentrations ranged from 557 to 2210 mg/liter and from 0.1 to 33 mg/liter, respectively, with the lowest concentrations occurring downgradient from near-pristine areas and the highest concentrations occurring downgradient from cultivated and irrigated fields. In ground water downgradient from cultivated and irrigated fields, most of the chemical parameters had pronounced decreases in concentration with depth. Stratification was more pronounced in the bottomland than in the terrace and in the latter reflects mixing of the ground water caused by intensive pumping of irrigation water during the last four decades. Magnesium and potassium had marked decreases with depth regardless of upgradient land use. Markedmore » cyclic fluctuations in NO/sub 3/-N and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations generally were observed in the bottomland ground water. Sulfate concentrations, which were significantly correlated with TDS, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/ Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -/, peaked in late winter and early spring. Ground water in secondary aquifers confined within or beneath a layer of clayey silt had an average TDS concentration of 304 mg/liter and almost negligible amounts of NO/sub 3/-N.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln
OSTI Identifier:
5163733
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
J. Environ. Qual.; (United States)
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 9:3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; GROUND WATER; CHEMISTRY; ACID CARBONATES; CALCIUM COMPOUNDS; CATIONS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; CHLORIDES; DISSOLUTION; DISTRIBUTION; FLUORIDES; MAGNESIUM COMPOUNDS; MONITORING; NEBRASKA; NITRATES; PH VALUE; PHOSPHATES; POTASSIUM COMPOUNDS; SILICA; SODIUM COMPOUNDS; SOLIDS; STRUCTURAL MODELS; SULFATES; TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT; TIME DEPENDENCE; ALKALI METAL COMPOUNDS; ALKALINE EARTH METAL COMPOUNDS; CHALCOGENIDES; CHARGED PARTICLES; CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; FLUORINE COMPOUNDS; HALIDES; HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; IONS; MIDWEST REGION; MINERALS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; NORTH AMERICA; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PHOSPHORUS COMPOUNDS; SILICON COMPOUNDS; SILICON OXIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; USA; WATER; 520200* - Environment, Aquatic- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Spalding, R F, and Exner, M E. Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground water chemistry. I. Inorganic constituents. United States: N. p., 1980. Web. doi:10.2134/jeq1980.00472425000900030030x.
Spalding, R F, & Exner, M E. Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground water chemistry. I. Inorganic constituents. United States. doi:10.2134/jeq1980.00472425000900030030x.
Spalding, R F, and Exner, M E. Tue . "Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground water chemistry. I. Inorganic constituents". United States. doi:10.2134/jeq1980.00472425000900030030x.
@article{osti_5163733,
title = {Areal, vertical, and temporal differences in ground water chemistry. I. Inorganic constituents},
author = {Spalding, R F and Exner, M E},
abstractNote = {Definite areal, vertical, and temporal differences were observed in the ground water chemistry of a 62 km/sup 2/ area in Nebraska's Platte Valley. A network of 53 wells was monitored 10 times between July 1975 and July 1976 for dissolved solids, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/, Na/sup +/, K/sup +/, HCO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Cl/sup -/, F/sup -/, NO/sub 3/-N, PO/sub 4/-P, SiO/sub 2/, pH, and temperature. Areal differences were most pronounced in the shallow ground water and reflected upgradient land use and soil type. Average total dissolved solids (TDS) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO/sub 3/-N) concentrations ranged from 557 to 2210 mg/liter and from 0.1 to 33 mg/liter, respectively, with the lowest concentrations occurring downgradient from near-pristine areas and the highest concentrations occurring downgradient from cultivated and irrigated fields. In ground water downgradient from cultivated and irrigated fields, most of the chemical parameters had pronounced decreases in concentration with depth. Stratification was more pronounced in the bottomland than in the terrace and in the latter reflects mixing of the ground water caused by intensive pumping of irrigation water during the last four decades. Magnesium and potassium had marked decreases with depth regardless of upgradient land use. Marked cyclic fluctuations in NO/sub 3/-N and SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ concentrations generally were observed in the bottomland ground water. Sulfate concentrations, which were significantly correlated with TDS, Ca/sup 2 +/, Mg/sup 2 +/ Na/sup +/, and Cl/sup -/, peaked in late winter and early spring. Ground water in secondary aquifers confined within or beneath a layer of clayey silt had an average TDS concentration of 304 mg/liter and almost negligible amounts of NO/sub 3/-N.},
doi = {10.2134/jeq1980.00472425000900030030x},
journal = {J. Environ. Qual.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 9:3,
place = {United States},
year = {1980},
month = {7}
}