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Title: Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils

Abstract

This study investigated the fate and transport of explosives in soils. Transport experiments were conducted to describe the mobility of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a SWy-1 reference clay (bentonite mixed with sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Miscible displacement experiments in packed soil columns under steady flow were used. For the bentonite/sand column, TNT was highly mobile and fully reversible when methanol was used as the background solution. In contrast the TNT pulse was strongly retarded with as much as 50% of that applied remaining within the bentonite/sand, Norwood, or Kolin columns. Products of the transformation of TNT to 4-Am-DNT and other compound were identified in the effluent solution. A 7-day flow interruption during the TNT pulse application resulted in decreased TNT levels in the effluent solution. This decrease corresponded to a sudden increase in the 4-Am-DNT concentration in the effluent. For RDX only limited retention was observed. These findings are consistent with results from adsorption-desorption batch experiments. The TNT and RDX transport results were successfully described by a nonlinear multireaction and transport model (MRTM), which accounted for equilibrium and kinetic (reversible and irreversible) retention mechanisms. However, efforts to describe RDX transport were more successful thanmore » efforts to describe TNT when independently determined (batch) parameters were used. The mobility of TNT, RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from a Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. A gradual release and subsequent movement of various contaminants, including HMX, TNT, RDX, TNG, 2-Am-DNT, and 4-Am-DNT, was observed. The leaching patterns were consistent with results from uncontaminated Kolin soil columns and reflected the affinity of contaminants during leaching in the AAP soil. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2]
  1. Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)
  2. Army-CRREL, Hanover, NH (United States)
Publication Date:
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
513337
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Soil Science
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 160; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: PBD: Nov 1995
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; TNT; ENVIRONMENTAL TRANSPORT; SOILS; CONTAMINATION

Citation Formats

Selim, H M, Xue, S K, and Iskandar, I K. Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils. United States: N. p., 1995. Web. doi:10.1097/00010694-199511000-00002.
Selim, H M, Xue, S K, & Iskandar, I K. Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils. United States. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199511000-00002
Selim, H M, Xue, S K, and Iskandar, I K. Wed . "Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils". United States. https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199511000-00002.
@article{osti_513337,
title = {Transport of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine in soils},
author = {Selim, H M and Xue, S K and Iskandar, I K},
abstractNote = {This study investigated the fate and transport of explosives in soils. Transport experiments were conducted to describe the mobility of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in a SWy-1 reference clay (bentonite mixed with sand) and two selected soils (Norwood and Kolin). Miscible displacement experiments in packed soil columns under steady flow were used. For the bentonite/sand column, TNT was highly mobile and fully reversible when methanol was used as the background solution. In contrast the TNT pulse was strongly retarded with as much as 50% of that applied remaining within the bentonite/sand, Norwood, or Kolin columns. Products of the transformation of TNT to 4-Am-DNT and other compound were identified in the effluent solution. A 7-day flow interruption during the TNT pulse application resulted in decreased TNT levels in the effluent solution. This decrease corresponded to a sudden increase in the 4-Am-DNT concentration in the effluent. For RDX only limited retention was observed. These findings are consistent with results from adsorption-desorption batch experiments. The TNT and RDX transport results were successfully described by a nonlinear multireaction and transport model (MRTM), which accounted for equilibrium and kinetic (reversible and irreversible) retention mechanisms. However, efforts to describe RDX transport were more successful than efforts to describe TNT when independently determined (batch) parameters were used. The mobility of TNT, RDX, and other compounds from a contaminated soil obtained from a Louisiana Army Ammunition Plant (AAP) site was also investigated. A gradual release and subsequent movement of various contaminants, including HMX, TNT, RDX, TNG, 2-Am-DNT, and 4-Am-DNT, was observed. The leaching patterns were consistent with results from uncontaminated Kolin soil columns and reflected the affinity of contaminants during leaching in the AAP soil. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.},
doi = {10.1097/00010694-199511000-00002},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/513337}, journal = {Soil Science},
number = 5,
volume = 160,
place = {United States},
year = {1995},
month = {11}
}