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Title: Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance

Abstract

Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared to pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where milliseconds and millimeters often determine the success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5114696
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Med. Sci. Sports. Exercise.; (United States); Journal Volume: 3
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; AIR POLLUTION; HEALTH HAZARDS; OZONE; SULFUR DIOXIDE; EXERCISE; HUMAN POPULATIONS; INHALATION; LUNGS; RESPIRATION; BODY; CHALCOGENIDES; HAZARDS; INTAKE; ORGANS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; POPULATIONS; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; SULFUR OXIDES; 560306* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Man- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Pierson, W.E., Covert, D.S., Koenig, J.Q., Namekata, T., and Kim, Y.S. Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1249/00005768-198606000-00012.
Pierson, W.E., Covert, D.S., Koenig, J.Q., Namekata, T., & Kim, Y.S. Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance. United States. doi:10.1249/00005768-198606000-00012.
Pierson, W.E., Covert, D.S., Koenig, J.Q., Namekata, T., and Kim, Y.S. 1986. "Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance". United States. doi:10.1249/00005768-198606000-00012.
@article{osti_5114696,
title = {Implications of air pollution effects on athletic performance},
author = {Pierson, W.E. and Covert, D.S. and Koenig, J.Q. and Namekata, T. and Kim, Y.S.},
abstractNote = {Both controlled human studies and observational studies suggest that air pollution adversely affects athletic performance during both training and competition. The air pollution dosage during exercise is much higher than during rest because of a higher ventilatory rate and both nasal and oral breathing in the former case. For example, sulfur dioxide, which is a highly water-soluble gas, is almost entirely absorbed in the upper respiratory tract during nasal breathing. However, with oral pharyngeal breathing, the amount of sulfur dioxide that is absorbed is significantly less, and with exercise and oral pharyngeal breathing a significant decrease in upper airway absorption occurs, resulting in a significantly larger dosage of this pollutant being delivered to the tracheobronchial tree. Recently, several controlled human studies have shown that the combination of exercise and pollutant exposure (SO/sub 2/ or O/sub 3/) caused a marked bronchoconstriction and reduced ventilatory flow when compared to pollution exposure at rest. In a situation like the Olympic Games where milliseconds and millimeters often determine the success of athletes, air pollution can be an important factor in affecting their performance. This paper examines possible impacts of air pollution on athletic competition.},
doi = {10.1249/00005768-198606000-00012},
journal = {Med. Sci. Sports. Exercise.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 3,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 6
}
  • 6-yr cross-country track team performance was correlated with air pollution. Percentage of team with decreased performance highly correlated with oxidant levels, especially those 1 hr prior to race (r = 0.879). Separation of 6-yr study into two 3-yr segments gives even better correlation (r = 0.945). Less correlation was observed with suspended particles. None was observed with CO, humidity, temperature, or wind velocity or direction. Team performance decreased on four worst days of oxidant air pollution. Result could be from direct physiologic effect or discomfort (so less effort exerted).
  • Human controlled and observational studies both lead to the conclusion of air pollution adversely affecting athletic performance during training and competition. The dosage of various air pollutants during exercise is much higher due to the marked increase in ventilatory rate and concomitant nasal and oral breathing. This is particularly true for sulfur dioxide which is a highly water-soluble gas and is normally absorbed in the upper airway during nasal breathing. With heavy exercise, oral pharyngeal breathing is the predominant mode of breathing and much larger amounts of sulfur dioxide are delivered to the lower airway resulting in significant impact uponmore » the lower respiratory tract. More recently, several controlled human studies have shown that a combination of exercise and air pollutants such as ozone (O3) or sulfur dioxides (SO2) cause a significant increase in bronchoconstriction and air flow obstruction when compared to the same exposure at rest. In strenuous athletic competition such as the Olympic Games where small increments of time often determine the ultimate success of athletes, the impact of air pollutants and subsequent adverse ventilatory changes can affect athletic performance. 62 references.« less
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  • Background: Americans spend the vast majority of their lives in built environments. Even traditionally outdoor pursuits, such as exercising, are often now performed indoors. Bacteria that colonize these indoor ecosystems are primarily derived from the human microbiome. The modes of human interaction with indoor surfaces and the physical conditions associated with each surface type determine the steady-state ecology of the microbial community. Results: Bacterial assemblages associated with different surfaces in three athletic facilities, including floors, mats, benches, free weights, and elliptical handles, were sampled every other hour (8 am to 6 pm) for 2 days. Surface and equipment type hadmore » a stronger influence on bacterial community composition than the facility in which they were housed. Surfaces that were primarily in contact with human skin exhibited highly dynamic bacterial community composition and non-random co-occurrence patterns, suggesting that different host microbiomes—shaped by selective forces—were being deposited on these surfaces through time. Bacterial assemblages found on the floors and mats changed less over time, and species co-occurrence patterns appeared random, suggesting more neutral community assembly. Conclusions: These longitudinal patterns highlight the dramatic turnover of microbial communities on surfaces in regular contact with human skin. By uncovering these longitudinal patterns, this study promotes a better understanding of microbe-human interactions within the built environment.« less