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Title: 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery

Abstract

Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA
OSTI Identifier:
5113786
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Bioelectromagnetics (N.Y.); (United States); Journal Volume: 2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; MELATONIN; DAILY VARIATIONS; PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES; PINEAL GLAND; RATS; AMINES; ANIMALS; AROMATICS; AZAARENES; AZOLES; BODY; ENZYMES; GLANDS; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; INDOLES; MAMMALS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; ORGANS; PHOSPHORUS-GROUP TRANSFERASES; PYRROLES; RODENTS; TRANSFERASES; TRYPTAMINES; VARIATIONS; VERTEBRATES; 560400* - Other Environmental Pollutant Effects

Citation Formats

Wilson, B.W., Chess, E.K., and Anderson, L.E.. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1002/bem.2250070213.
Wilson, B.W., Chess, E.K., & Anderson, L.E.. 60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery. United States. doi:10.1002/bem.2250070213.
Wilson, B.W., Chess, E.K., and Anderson, L.E.. Wed . "60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery". United States. doi:10.1002/bem.2250070213.
@article{osti_5113786,
title = {60-Hz electric-field effects on pineal melatonin rhythms: time course for onset and recovery},
author = {Wilson, B.W. and Chess, E.K. and Anderson, L.E.},
abstractNote = {Rats exposed for 3 weeks to uniform 60-Hz electric fields of 39 kV/m (effective field strength) failed to show normal pineal gland circadian rhythms in serotonin N-acetyl transferase activity and melatonin concentrations. The time required for recovery of the melatonin rhythm after cessation of field exposure was determined to be less than 3 days. The rapid recovery suggests that the overall metabolic competence of the pineal is not permanently compromised by electric-field exposure, and that the circadian rhythm effect may be neuronally mediated.},
doi = {10.1002/bem.2250070213},
journal = {Bioelectromagnetics (N.Y.); (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 2,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1986},
month = {Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 EST 1986}
}
  • Experiments conducted with laboratory rodents indicate that exposure to 60 Hz electric fields or magnetic fields can suppress nocturnal melatonin concentrations in pineal gland and blood. In three experiments employing three field-exposed and three sham-exposed nonhuman primates, each implanted with an indwelling venous cannula to allow repeated blood sampling, the authors studied the effects of either 6 kV/m and 50 {micro}T (0.5 G) or 30 kV/m and 100 {micro}T (1.0 G) on serum melatonin patterns. The fields were ramped on and off slowly, so that no transients occurred. Extensive quality control for the melatonin assay, computerized control and monitoring ofmore » field intensities, and consistent exposure protocols were used. No changes in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration resulted from 6 weeks of day-time exposure with slow field onset/offset and a highly regular exposure protocol. These results indicate that, under the conditions tested, day-time exposure to 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields in combination does not result in melatonin suppression in primates.« less
  • Experiments with rodents indicate that power-frequency electric field (EF) or magnetic field (MF) exposure can suppress the normal nocturnal increase in melatonin concentration in pineal gland and blood. In a separate set of three experiments conducted with nonhuman primates, the authors did not observe melatonin suppression as a result of 6 weeks of day-time exposure to combined 60 Hz electric and magnetic fields (E/MF) with regularly schedule ``slow`` E/MF onsets/offsets. The study described here used a different exposure paradigm in which two baboons were exposed to E/MF with ``rapid`` E/MF onsets/offsets accompanied by EF transients not found with slowly rampedmore » E/MF onset/offset; profound reductions in nocturnal serum melatonin concentration were observed in this experiment. If replicated in a more extensive experiment, the observation of melatonin suppression only in the presence of E/MF transients would suggest that very specific exposure parameters determine the effects of 60 Hz E/MF on melatonin.« less
  • Rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields of either 10, 65, or 130 kV/m from conception to 23 days of age exhibited reduced peak nighttime pineal melatonin contents compared to unexposed controls. As a group, the exposed rats also exhibited a phase delay, estimated at approximately 1.4 hours, in the occurrence of the nocturnal melatonin peak. No clear dose-response relationship was noticed over the range of electric field strengths used as treatments in these experiments. These are the first studies concerned with the effects of electric field exposure on the pineal melatonin rhythm in immature rats. The findings are generally consistentmore » with those obtained using adult rats, where electric field exposure has been shown to abolish the nighttime rhythm in pineal melatonin concentrations.« less
  • As a component of studies to search for effects of 60-Hz electric field exposure on mammalian endocrine function, concentrations of melatonin, 5-methoxytryptophol, and serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity were measured in the pineal glands of rats exposed or sham-exposed at 65 kV/m for 30 days.In two replicate experiments there were statistically significant differences between exposed and control rats in that the normal nocturnal increase in pineal melatonin content was depressed in the exposed animals. Concentrations of 5-methoxytryptophol were increased in the pineal glands of the exposed groups when compared to sham-exposed controls. An alteration was also observed in serotonin-N-acetyl transferase activity, withmore » lower levels measured in pineal glands from exposed animals.« less
  • Experiments using the dwarf Siberian hamster Phodopus sungorus were carried out to determine possible neuroendocrine consequences of one-time and repeated exposures to 60 Hz magnetic fields (MF). Animals were maintained in either a short-light (SL, 8 h light:16 h dar) or long-light (LL, 16 h light:8h dark) photoperiod.