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Title: Environmental recovery in a marine ecosystem impacted by a sulfite process pulp mill

Abstract

Recovery of an impacted marine ecosystem has been monitored by progressive advance of biologically distinguishable zones toward a waste discharge point from a pulp mill brought under specific pollution controls. The relative distribution of enchytraeid/tubificid oligochaetes monitored a 0.5-km retreat of a depauperated zone initially extending 1 km around the discharge point. Distribution and abundance of Fucus-epifaunal amphipods monitored recovery of a less impacted zone, particularly by a 7-km advance of a Peak of Opportunists point involving the species Allorchestes angusta. Shoreline organism diversity provided a biologically based estimate (approximately 12 km from the discharge source) of the region distinguishably influenced by the pulp mill effluent. (Refs. 10).

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Victoria, British Columbia, Canada
OSTI Identifier:
5103664
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: J. - Water Pollut. Control Fed.; (United States); Journal Volume: 53:8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; AQUATIC ECOSYSTEMS; MONITORING; SPENT LIQUORS; ENVIRONMENTAL EFFECTS; CANADA; CONTAMINATION; INVERTEBRATES; POLLUTION CONTROL; SLURRIES; SPECIES DIVERSITY; ANIMALS; CONTROL; DISPERSIONS; ECOSYSTEMS; INDUSTRIAL WASTES; LIQUID WASTES; MIXTURES; NORTH AMERICA; SUSPENSIONS; WASTES 520200* -- Environment, Aquatic-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Cross, S.F., and Ellis, D.V. Environmental recovery in a marine ecosystem impacted by a sulfite process pulp mill. United States: N. p., 1981. Web.
Cross, S.F., & Ellis, D.V. Environmental recovery in a marine ecosystem impacted by a sulfite process pulp mill. United States.
Cross, S.F., and Ellis, D.V. 1981. "Environmental recovery in a marine ecosystem impacted by a sulfite process pulp mill". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5103664,
title = {Environmental recovery in a marine ecosystem impacted by a sulfite process pulp mill},
author = {Cross, S.F. and Ellis, D.V.},
abstractNote = {Recovery of an impacted marine ecosystem has been monitored by progressive advance of biologically distinguishable zones toward a waste discharge point from a pulp mill brought under specific pollution controls. The relative distribution of enchytraeid/tubificid oligochaetes monitored a 0.5-km retreat of a depauperated zone initially extending 1 km around the discharge point. Distribution and abundance of Fucus-epifaunal amphipods monitored recovery of a less impacted zone, particularly by a 7-km advance of a Peak of Opportunists point involving the species Allorchestes angusta. Shoreline organism diversity provided a biologically based estimate (approximately 12 km from the discharge source) of the region distinguishably influenced by the pulp mill effluent. (Refs. 10).},
doi = {},
journal = {J. - Water Pollut. Control Fed.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 53:8,
place = {United States},
year = 1981,
month = 8
}
  • Some low-yield sulfite pulping operations ferment spent sulfite liquor (SSL) to remove biochemical oxygen demand associated with dissolved sugars while at the same time generating ethanol as a salable product. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of primary clarifier sludge in a medium of SSL was proposed as a means of reducing the amount of sludge to be disposed of while at the same time increasing ethanol productivity. In this article, the option of fortifying existing SSL fermenting processes with the sugars produced via in situ enzymatic hydrolysis of sulfite primary clarifier sludge (PCS) has been explored. In 100% SSL PCSmore » hydrolysis rates as high as 3.4 g/(L{center_dot}h) were observed at an initial enzyme loading of 10 filter paper units (FPU)/g PCS. To reduce the deleterious effects of glucose inhibition, single-stage SSF was carried out using cellulose enzymes and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The production rate of ethanol in SSL was increased by as much as 25% through the SSF process. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Although lignocellulosic biomass and wastes are targeted as an attractive alternative fermentation feedstock for the production of fuel ethanol, cellulosic ethanol is not yet an industrial reality because of problems in bioconversion technologies relating both to depolymerization and fermentation. In the production of wood pulp by the sulfite process, about 50% of the wood (hemicellulose and lignin) is dissolved to produce cellulose pulp, and the pulp mill effluent ([open quotes]spent sulfite liquor[close quotes] SSL) represents the only lignocellulosic hydrolysate available today in large quantities. Although softwoods have been the traditional feedstock for pulping operations, hardwood pulping is becoming more popular,more » and the pentose sugars in hardwood SSL (principally xylose) are not fermented by the yeasts currently being used in the production of ethanol from softwood SSL. This study assessed the fermentation performance characteristics of a patented (US Pat. 5,000,000), recombinant Escherichia coli B (ATCC 11303 pLOI297) in anaerobic batch fermentations of both nutrient-supplemented soft and hardwood SSL (30-35 g/L total reducing sugars). The pH was controlled at 7.0 to maximize tolerance to acetic acid. In contrast to the high-performance characteristics exhibited in synthetic media, formulated to mimic the composition of softwood and hardwood SSL, performance in SSL media was variable with conversion efficiencies in the range of 67-84% for hardwood SSL and 53-76% for softwood SSL. Overlimiting treatment of HSSL, using Ca(OH)[sub 2], improved overall volumetric productivity two- to sevenfold to a max of 0.42 g/L/h at an initial cell loading of 0.5 g dry wt/L. A conversion efficiency of 92% was achieved using diluted Ca(OH)[sub 2]-treated hardwood SSL. The variable behavior of this particular genetic construct is viewed as a major detractant regarding its candidacy as a biocatalyst for SSL fermentations. 48 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  • As many of the recovery boilers and other pieces of large capital equipment of U.S. pulp mills are nearing the end of their useful life, the pulp and paper industry will soon need to make long-term investments in new technologies. The ability to install integrated, complete systems that are highly efficient will impact the industry’s energy use for decades to come. Developing a process for these new systems is key to the adoption of state-of-the-art technologies in the Forest Products industry. This project defined an integrated process model that combines mini-sulfide sulfite anthraquinone (MSS-AQ) pulping and black liquor gasification withmore » a proprietary desulfurization process developed by the Research Triangle Institute. Black liquor gasification is an emerging technology that enables the use of MSS-AQ pulping, which results in higher yield, lower bleaching cost, lower sulfur emissions, and the elimination of causticization requirements. The recently developed gas cleanup/absorber technology can clean the product gas to a state suitable for use in a gas turbine and also regenerate the pulping chemicals needed to for the MSS-AQ pulping process. The combination of three advanced technologies into an integrated design will enable the pulping industry to achieve a new level of efficiency, environmental performance, and cost savings. Because the three technologies are complimentary, their adoption as a streamlined package will ensure their ability to deliver maximum energy and cost savings benefits. The process models developed by this project will enable the successful integration of new technologies into the next generation of chemical pulping mills. When compared to the Kraft reference pulp, the MSS-AQ procedures produced pulps with a 10-15 % yield benefit and the ISO brightness was 1.5-2 times greater. The pulp refined little easier and had a slightly lower apparent sheet density (In both the cases). At similar levels of tear index the MSS-AQ pulps also produced a comparable tensile and burst index pulps. Product gas composition determined using computer simulations The results demonstrate that RVS-1 can effectively remove > 99.8% of the H2S present in simulated synthesis gas generated from the gasification of black liquor. This level of sulfur removal was consistent over simulated synthesis gas mixtures that contained from 6 to 9.5 vol % H2S.A significant amount of the sulfur in the simulated syngas was recovered as SO2 during regeneration. The average recovery of sulfur as SO2 was about 75%. Because these are first cycle results, this sulfur recovery is expected to improve. Developed WINGems model of the process.The total decrease in variable operating costs for the BLG process compared to the HERB was in excess of $6,200,000 per year for a mill producing 350,000 tons of pulp per year. This represents a decrease in operating cost of about $17.7/ton of oven dry pulp produced. There will be additional savings in labor and maintenance cost that has not been taken into account. The capital cost for the MSSAQ based gasifier system was estimated at $164,000,000, which is comparable to a High Efficiency Recovery Boiler. The return on investment was estimated at 4%. A gasifier replacement cannot be justified on its own, however if the recovery boiler needs to be replaced the MSSAQ gasifier system shows significantly higher savings. Before black liquor based gasifer technology can be commercialized more work is necessary. The recovery of the absorbed sulfur in the absorbent as sulfur dioxide is only 75%. This needs to be greater than 90% for economical operation. It has been suggested that as the number of cycles is increased the sulfur dioxide recovery might improve. Further research is necessary. Even though a significant amount of work has been done on a pilot scale gasifiers using liquors containing sulfur, both at low and high temperatures the lack of a commercial unit is an impediment to the implementation of the MSSAQ technology. The implementation of a commercial unit needs to be facilated before the benefits of the MSSAQ technology with ZnO absorbtion will become acceptable to the paper industry.« less
  • Chloride accumulation is a serious issue in the kraft pulping process. Chloride can be selectively removed from dissolved electrostatic precipitator dust (ESP dust) in the kraft chemical recovery cycle by electrodialysis with monovalent-selective anion-exchange membranes. In a pilot-scale field test, this process was investigated (total run time, 750 h). The test was performed at about 3.5% of full scale. The process showed outstanding performance and no significant membrane fouling. In feed-and-bleed operation, chloride removal levels of 94% and 61% were tested. The energy consumption for electrodialysis is low (120 kWh per metric ton of chloride removed at a 63% chloridemore » removal level). The process performed very well even with no feed pretreatment, polarity reversal, or membrane cleaning.« less
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