skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities

Abstract

The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.

Authors:
 [1]
  1. (King Saud Univ., Riyadh (SA))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5103090
Report Number(s):
CONF-870695--
Journal ID: ISSN 0193-9688; CODEN: PRAPA
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association; (USA); Journal Volume: 7; Conference: 80. annual meeting of the Air Pollution Control Association, New York, NY (USA), 21-26 Jun 1987; Other Information: Technical Paper 87-106D.4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; HYDROGEN SULFIDES; AIR POLLUTION MONITORING; RESOURCE RECOVERY FACILITIES; HEALTH HAZARDS; WATER POLLUTION; REMEDIAL ACTION; WATER TREATMENT PLANTS; HUMAN POPULATIONS; IONS; MUNICIPAL WASTES; SULFATES; SYMPTOMS; WASTE WATER; CHALCOGENIDES; CHARGED PARTICLES; ENERGY FACILITIES; HAZARDS; HYDROGEN COMPOUNDS; INDUSTRIAL PLANTS; LIQUID WASTES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; POLLUTION; POPULATIONS; SULFIDES; SULFUR COMPOUNDS; WASTE PROCESSING PLANTS; WASTES; WATER 540320* -- Environment, Aquatic-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-); 320604 -- Energy Conservation, Consumption, & Utilization-- Municipalities & Community Systems-- Municipal Waste Management-- (1980-); 290300 -- Energy Planning & Policy-- Environment, Health, & Safety; 540120 -- Environment, Atmospheric-- Chemicals Monitoring & Transport-- (1990-)

Citation Formats

AlDhowalia, K.H.. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities. United States: N. p., 1987. Web.
AlDhowalia, K.H.. Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities. United States.
AlDhowalia, K.H.. 1987. "Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5103090,
title = {Hydrogen sulfide pollution in wastewater treatment facilities},
author = {AlDhowalia, K.H.},
abstractNote = {The hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) found in wastewater collection systems and wastewater treatment facilities results from the bacterial reduction of the sulfate ion (SO{sub 4}). Hydrogen sulfide is a gas that occurs both in the sewer atmosphere and as a dissolved gas in the wastewater. When raw wastewater first enters the wastewater treatment facility by gravity most of the hydrogen sulfide is in the gaseous phase and will escape into the atmosphere at the inlet structures. Also some of the dissolved hydrogen sulfide will be released at points of turbulance such as at drops in flow, flumes, or aeration chambers. Several factors can cause excessive hydrogen sulfide concentrations in a sewerage system. These include septic sewage, long flow times in the sewerage system, high temperatures, flat sewer grades, and poor ventilation. These factors are discussed in this paper.},
doi = {},
journal = {Proceedings, Annual Meeting, Air Pollution Control Association; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = 1987,
month = 1
}

Conference:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that hold this conference proceeding.

Save / Share:
  • Control of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) and odor emissions has been a major consideration for many wastewater treatment plants. Many different methods have been and are currently being used for H{sub 2}S and odor control. Most of the current methods involve absorption of H{sub 2}S and odors into a liquid solution or adsorption onto a solid matrix. These methods are either expensive or if not operated correctly can be inefficient. The Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts have developed a biological method to remove odors and H{sub 2}S from different off-gas streams at its main wastewater treatment plant, the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant (JWPCP). This treatment method, which is known as a biotrickling filter, uses a packed contactor device in which the air to be treated is blown through the packing. The H{sub 2}S and odor is removed by a scrubbing solution containing bacteria that is trickled down from the top of the contactor. Different types of column packing media were tested, with a rock-based media being the most effective. The rock media allowed the biotrickling filter to get over 98 percent removal of inlet H{sub 2}S, as long as H{sub 2}S loadings did not exceed 39 g-H{sub 2}S/m{sup 3}-hr (1.1 g-H{sub 2}S/ft{sup 3}-hr). Odor panel analyses indicated that inlet odors were reduced by 99 percent by the biotrickling filter. Due to the success of the research work, a full scale biotrickling filter is being put into operation at the JWPCP. The unit will replace existing caustic scrubbers and will be much less expensive to operate. Current costs to operate a caustic scrubber at the JWPCP is aboutmore » $$1,150 per million m{sup 3} ($$33.00 per million ft3) of air treated. The biotrickling filter operational costs would be about one-fifth or $$240 per million m{sup 3} ($$7.00 per million ft{sup 3}) of air treated.« less
  • In the world of environmental engineering, a popular phrase is pollution prevention. Real pollution prevention requires implementation of real projects. This presentation addresses the subject of converting environmental liabilities into opportunities in the areas of water and wastewater treatment. The authors cite three specific examples of real projects, two of which are for the steel industry and the third from the automobile manufacturing industry. All of these projects have common traits: they all represent real pollution prevention and they all entail real quantifiable net savings contrasted with the status quo. They also tend to be motivated both by economics andmore » by environmental compliance.« less
  • The leather industry is an important export-oriented industry in India, with more than 3,000 tanneries located in different clusters. Sodium sulfide, a toxic chemical, is used in large quantities to remove hair and excess flesh from hides and skins. Most of the sodium sulfide used in the process is discharged as waste in the effluent, which causes serious environmental problems. Reduction of sulfide in the effluent is generally achieved by means of chemicals in the pretreatment system, which involves aerobic mixing using large amounts of chemicals and high energy, and generating large volumes of sludge. A simple biotechnological system thatmore » uses the residual biosludge from the secondary settling tank was developed, and the commercial-scale application established that more than 90% of the sulfide could be reduced in the primary treatment system. In addition to the reduction of sulfide, foul smells, BOD and COD are reduced to a considerable level. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • This report details a study into the demand response potential of a large wastewater treatment facility in San Francisco. Previous research had identified wastewater treatment facilities as good candidates for demand response and automated demand response, and this study was conducted to investigate facility attributes that are conducive to demand response or which hinder its implementation. One years' worth of operational data were collected from the facility's control system, submetered process equipment, utility electricity demand records, and governmental weather stations. These data were analyzed to determine factors which affected facility power demand and demand response capabilities The average baseline demandmore » at the Southeast facility was approximately 4 MW. During the rainy season (October-March) the facility treated 40% more wastewater than the dry season, but demand only increased by 4%. Submetering of the facility's lift pumps and centrifuges predicted load shifts capabilities of 154 kW and 86 kW, respectively, with large lift pump shifts in the rainy season. Analysis of demand data during maintenance events confirmed the magnitude of these possible load shifts, and indicated other areas of the facility with demand response potential. Load sheds were seen to be possible by shutting down a portion of the facility's aeration trains (average shed of 132 kW). Load shifts were seen to be possible by shifting operation of centrifuges, the gravity belt thickener, lift pumps, and external pump stations These load shifts were made possible by the storage capabilities of the facility and of the city's sewer system. Large load reductions (an average of 2,065 kW) were seen from operating the cogeneration unit, but normal practice is continuous operation, precluding its use for demand response. The study also identified potential demand response opportunities that warrant further study: modulating variable-demand aeration loads, shifting operation of sludge-processing equipment besides centrifuges, and utilizing schedulable self-generation.« less
  • Biodegradability and bacterial toxicity tests of dilute solutions of Otto fuel from spent torpedoes were used to evaluate the possibility of conventional biological treatment of effluents from refuelling depots.