skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures

Abstract

We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation Experiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures in an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
5076261
Report Number(s):
UCRL-87284; CONF-820822-8
ON: DE82019437
DOE Contract Number:
W-7405-ENG-48
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Conference: 26. technical symposium and exhibition of the International Society for Optical Engineering, San Diego, CA, USA, 21 Aug 1982
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
45 MILITARY TECHNOLOGY, WEAPONRY, AND NATIONAL DEFENSE; 47 OTHER INSTRUMENTATION; NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS; MATERIALS TESTING; OPTICAL EQUIPMENT; DESIGN; PERFORMANCE; UNDERGROUND EXPLOSIONS; CAMERAS; DATA TRANSMISSION; EXPERIMENTAL DATA; FIBER OPTICS; GEOLOGIC DEPOSITS; REMOTE SENSING; STREAK PHOTOGRAPHY; COMMUNICATIONS; DATA; EQUIPMENT; EXPLOSIONS; INFORMATION; NUMERICAL DATA; PHOTOGRAPHY; TESTING; 450200* - Military Technology, Weaponry, & National Defense- Nuclear Explosions & Explosives; 440300 - Miscellaneous Instruments- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Smith, D.E., and Roeske, F. FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
Smith, D.E., & Roeske, F. FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures. United States.
Smith, D.E., and Roeske, F. Thu . "FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5076261,
title = {FOREX: a fiber-optics diagnostic system for study of materials at high temperatures and pressures},
author = {Smith, D.E. and Roeske, F.},
abstractNote = {We have successfully fielded a Fiber Optics Radiation Experiment system (FOREX) designed for measuring material properties at high temperatures and pressures in an underground nuclear test. The system collects light from radiating materials and transmits it through several hundred meters of optical fibers to a recording station consisting of a streak camera with film readout. The use of fiber optics provides a faster time response than can presently be obtained with equalized coaxial cables over comparable distances. Fibers also have significant cost and physical size advantages over coax cables. The streak camera achieves a much higher information density than an equivalent oscilloscope system, and it also serves as the light detector. The result is a wide bandwidth high capacity system that can be fielded at a relatively low cost in manpower, space, and materials. For this experiment, the streak camera had a 120 ns time window with a 1.2 ns time resolution. Dynamic range for the system was about 1000. Beam current statistical limitations were approximately 8% for a 0.3 ns wide data point at one decade above the threshold recording intensity.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Thu Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1982},
month = {Thu Jul 01 00:00:00 EDT 1982}
}

Technical Report:
Other availability
Please see Document Availability for additional information on obtaining the full-text document. Library patrons may search WorldCat to identify libraries that may hold this item. Keep in mind that many technical reports are not cataloged in WorldCat.

Save / Share:
  • The National Communications System (NCS) is responsible for defining reasonable enhancements that could be applied to commercial common carrier (or carriers'- carrier) fiber-optic systems that will be leased or owned by government agencies and which may be used for National Security/Emergency Preparedness (NSEP) purposes. This report provides background excerpted from many references used in the development of a multitier specification that identifies five levels of enhancement. (The multitier specification is presented in a separate report.) The report describes the nuclear environment for surface and in-atmosphere bursts outside of the blast region, where buildings and personnel would be expected to survive.more » In the environment, the vulnerability of optical fiber waveguides to fallout radiation is a primary concern. An assessment of fiber darkening, based on a review of unclassified literature, is presented. For exo-atmospheric nuclear bursts, the fiber optic system is exposed to High Altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP) radiation. Unclassified levels of these nuclear effects have been obtained from published literature. The characteristics of future generations of optical-fiber systems, as described in current literature, are outlined.« less
  • The effect of high pressures and temperatures on densification of vitreous silica and germania and on the polymorphism of crystalline Al/sub 2/SiO/ sub 5/ was investigated using the high-pressure techniques developed for diamond synthesis. Germania glass of a density approximately equivalent to that of the quartz-form germania was made by this technique. A shift of IR reflection bands at 1110 cm/sup -1/ for SiO/sub 2/ and 895 cm/sup -1/ for GeO/sub 2/ suggested that the densification of the glasses is a result of the decrease of the M-0-M angle, but the over-all spectra for both compressed vitreous SiO/sub 2/ andmore » GeO/ sub 2/ are unchanged from the correspondingly less dense glasses. High temperatures and pressures study of the system Al/sub 2/SiO/sub 5/ established that high-pressure form kyanite melts to alpha -Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ plus liquid. When kyanite is 'hotpressed" in its stability region, the grains show complex slip and kink pattern; but kyanite found under the same conditions from andalusite or sillimanite have simple grains possibly from twinning. No region of liquid immiscibility was found in the system as might be expected. (auth)« less
  • The binary hydrogen-methane study summarized in RR-46 presents the initial results of a comprehensive experimental program to study the hydrogen-carbon monoxide-methane ternary and binary systems. This system is of paramount importance in the production of substitute natural gas. The hydrogen-methane binary was studied in detail because published data appeared inconsistent or unreliable. Less detail is anticipated for the study of the remaining binaries and ternary which will be reported in a subsequent RR. The current data are directly applicable to process and separation designs. The ultimate goal of this program is to provide sufficient and adequate data from which equilibriamore » correlations may be extended or improved.« less
  • The project is intended to understand the energetics of reactions which occur when fluids interact in their supercritical and near-supercritical states. Heat of mixing (H/sup E/) and heat capacity (C/sub p/) data are obtained for selected binary and ternary fluid mixtures using a calorimetric procedure. Calorimeters have been constructed. These data are used in the evaluation of thermodynamic models based on equations of state which have been modified using appropriate scaling factors. Of particular interest has been the successful modeling of binary systems where the critical temperatures of the two components lie close together, in one case (Freon 12 +more » propane) 15/sup 0/K apart, and the critical pressures are nearly identical. The modeling was accomplished using H/sup E/ data obtained at temperatures up to 573/sup 0/K and pressures to 12.7 MPa for binary CO/sub 2/-X systems where X = decane, hexane, pentane, ethane, toluene, cyclohexane, or pyridine. In addition, several binary Freon-X mixtures have been investigated where X = 2,3- dimethylbutane, N,N-dimethylacetamide, propane or ethane.« less