skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents

Abstract

The possibility of biological monitoring of exposure to some volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons will be discussed. Most of these agents are widely used as solvents. All agents act on the nervous system as narcotics and differ widely in toxicity. Most of the solvents undergo biotransformation to metabolites. This allows biological assessment of exposure by measurement of the solvent and/or metabolites in exhaled air, blood, and/or urine. However, the same metabolites may occur with exposure to different chlorinated hydrocarbons, eg, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid from exposure to trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. On the other hand, these agents differ widely in the percentage that is metabolized. There are large gaps in our knowledge, however, and much research will have to be carried out before even tentative data can be established for most of the solvents.

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
OSTI Identifier:
5070841
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: JOM, J. Occup. Med.; (United States); Journal Volume: 8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; ORGANIC CHLORINE COMPOUNDS; METABOLISM; MONITORING; TOXICITY; ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE; METHYL CHLORIDE; METHYLENE CHLORIDE; ORGANIC SOLVENTS; VINYL CHLORIDE; CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS; HALOGENATED ALIPHATIC HYDROCARBONS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC HALOGEN COMPOUNDS; SOLVENTS; 560306* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Man- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Monster, A.C. Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1097/00043764-198608000-00012.
Monster, A.C. Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents. United States. doi:10.1097/00043764-198608000-00012.
Monster, A.C. 1986. "Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents". United States. doi:10.1097/00043764-198608000-00012.
@article{osti_5070841,
title = {Biological monitoring of chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents},
author = {Monster, A.C.},
abstractNote = {The possibility of biological monitoring of exposure to some volatile, halogenated hydrocarbons will be discussed. Most of these agents are widely used as solvents. All agents act on the nervous system as narcotics and differ widely in toxicity. Most of the solvents undergo biotransformation to metabolites. This allows biological assessment of exposure by measurement of the solvent and/or metabolites in exhaled air, blood, and/or urine. However, the same metabolites may occur with exposure to different chlorinated hydrocarbons, eg, trichloroethanol and trichloroacetic acid from exposure to trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane. On the other hand, these agents differ widely in the percentage that is metabolized. There are large gaps in our knowledge, however, and much research will have to be carried out before even tentative data can be established for most of the solvents.},
doi = {10.1097/00043764-198608000-00012},
journal = {JOM, J. Occup. Med.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 8,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 8
}
  • Organochlorine, organophosphorus and carbamate compounds are widely used pesticides in India for controlling disease carrying vectors and agricultural pests. Organochlorine compounds being persistent and lipophilic in nature, accumulate in the human body through food chain and environmental exposure. Accumulation of DDT, BHC and endosulfan has been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disorders, hypertension and other health related problems. Earlier, the authors have observed respiratory impairment (36.5%) among workers engaged in spraying of organochlorine pesticides on mango trees at Malihabad. In the present investigation, the levels of chlorinated present investigation, the levels of chlorinated pesticides among exposed workers have beenmore » monitored to study the distribution pattern in blood and their excretion in urine of human subjects.« less
  • The mutant methanotroph, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b PP358, which constitutively expresses soluble methane monooxygenase (sMMO), was used to study the degradation kinetics of individual chlorinated solvents and binary solvent mixtures. Although sMMO`s broad specificity permits a wide range of chlorinated solvents to be degraded, it creates the potential for competitive inhibition of degradation rates in mixtures because multiple chemicals are simultaneously available to the enzyme. To effectively design both exsitu and in-situ groundwater bioremediation systems using strain PP358, kinetic parameters for chlorinated solvent degradation and accurate kinetic expressions to account for inhibition in mixtures are required. Toward this end, the degradationmore » parameters for six prevalent chlorinated solvents an the verification of enzyme competition model for binary mixtures were the focus of this investigation. M.trichosporium OB3b PP258 degraded trichloroethylene (TCE), chloroform, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (c-DCE), trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (t-DCE), and 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE) rapidly, with maximum substrate transformation rates of {gt}20.8,3.1,9.5 24.8, and {gt}7.5 mg/mg-day, respectively. 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) was not significantly degraded.« less
  • Organic solvents are generally volatile substances that are absorbed mainly through the lungs; they are eliminated chiefly through the lungs and kidneys. In urine they are present as metabolites and, in very little part, as parent compound. The urinary concentration of solvent (Cu) can be used for the biological monitoring of exposed subjects to evaluate their exposure and correlate with the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) during the working day. The authors report some results obtained with workers occupationally exposed to solvents. The results concern the correlation between urinary concentration (Cu, micrograms/L) vs. average environmental concentration (Ci, mg/m3) measured in themore » breathing zone. For each solvent studied (acetone, 2-cyclohexane, 1,2-dichloropropane, n-hexane, methyl ethyl ketone, perchloroethylene, styrene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane) the authors propose a Biological Equivalent Exposure Limit (BEEL) corresponding to the environmental TLV.« less
  • Purified solutions of all-trans retinyl palmitate, retinol, and retinaldehyde in chloroform, methylene chloride, or hexane were exposed to white light or gold fluorescent light or were kept in the dark, and the resulting isomer distributions were determined by LC (liquid chromatography). No significant isomerization of any of the retinoids occurred either in the dark or on exposure to gold light in any of the solvents tested. However, a large amount of the 9-cis isomer and only much smaller amounts of other cis isomers were produced when retinol or retinyl palmitate in chloroform or methylene chloride solution was exposed to whitemore » light. The isomerization pattern of retinyl palmitate in chloroform was not altered by the addition of free-radical scavengers, addition of an organic base, or substitution of deuterochloroform for chloroform as solvent. Use of other polar solvents such as tetrahydrofuran, acetone, or methanol produced isomer distributions similar to those obtained in chloroform solution. Retinol and retinyl palmitate in hexane solution, on exposure to white light, were isomerized much less extensively than in chloroform or methylene chloride and produced a significant amount of the 13-cis, as well as the 9-cis, isomer. Isomerization of retinaldehyde in chloroform or in methylene chloride solution under white light yielded 13-cis, 11-cis, 9-cis, and 7-cis isomers, in order of decreasing amount, whereas in hexane solution, only the 13-cis and 9-cis isomers were produced in significant quantity.« less