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Title: Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure

Abstract

Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory patternmore » responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Univ. of California, Davis
OSTI Identifier:
5070829
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Med. Sci. Sports. Exercise.; (United States); Journal Volume: 4
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; LUNGS; DYNAMIC FUNCTION STUDIES; OZONE; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; DOSE-RESPONSE RELATIONSHIPS; EXERCISE; INHALATION; MAN; PERFORMANCE; RESPIRATION; ANIMALS; BODY; INTAKE; MAMMALS; ORGANS; PRIMATES; RESPIRATORY SYSTEM; VERTEBRATES; 560306* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Man- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Schelegle, E.S., and Adams, W.C. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1249/00005768-198608000-00008.
Schelegle, E.S., & Adams, W.C. Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure. United States. doi:10.1249/00005768-198608000-00008.
Schelegle, E.S., and Adams, W.C. 1986. "Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure". United States. doi:10.1249/00005768-198608000-00008.
@article{osti_5070829,
title = {Reduced exercise time in competitive simulations consequent to low level ozone exposure},
author = {Schelegle, E.S. and Adams, W.C.},
abstractNote = {Ten highly trained endurance athletes were studied to determine the effects of exposure to low ozone (O/sub 3/) concentrations on simulated competitive endurance performance and associated physiological and subjective symptom responses. Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), and to 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ while performing a 1 h competitive simulation protocol on a bicycle ergometer. Endurance performance was evaluated by the number of subjects unable to complete rides (last 30 min at an intense work load of approximately 86% VO/sub 2/max). All subjects completed the FA exposure, whereas one, five, and seven subjects did not complete the 0.12, 0.18, and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively. Statistical analysis indicated a significant (P less than 0.05) increase in the inability of subjects to complete the competitive simulations with increasing O/sub 3/ concentration, including a significant difference between the 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA exposure. Significant decreases (P less than 0.05) were also observed following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ exposures, respectively, in forced vital capacity (-7.8 and -9.9%), and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (-5.8 and -10.5%). No significant O/sub 3/ effect was observed for exercise respiratory metabolism or ventilatory pattern responses. However, the number of reported subjective symptoms increased significantly following the 0.18 and 0.24 ppm O/sub 3/ protocols. These data demonstrate significant decrements in simulated competitive endurance performance and in pulmonary function, with accompanying enhanced subjective symptoms, following exposure to low O/sub 3/ levels commonly observed in numerous metropolitan environments during the summer months.},
doi = {10.1249/00005768-198608000-00008},
journal = {Med. Sci. Sports. Exercise.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 4,
place = {United States},
year = 1986,
month = 8
}
  • Exposure to ozone (O3) at ambient photochemical smog alert levels has been shown to cause alteration in pulmonary function and exercise response in humans, but there is a paucity of data on females. The initial purpose of the present investigation was to study the effects of O3 inhalation on pulmonary function and selected exercise respiratory metabolism and breathing pattern responses in young adult females. Six female subjects exercised continuously on a bicycle ergometer for 1 h on 10 occasions at one of three intensities, while exposed to 0.0, 0.20, 0.30, or 0.40 ppm O3. Forced expiratory volume and flow ratesmore » and residual volume (RV) were measured before and immediately following each protocol. During exercise, expired minute ventilation (VE), respiratory frequency (fR), tidal volume, O2 uptake (VO2), and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min. O3 dose-dependent decrements were observed for forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0), and forced expiratory flow rate during the middle half of FVC, coupled with an increase in RV and altered exercise ventilatory pattern. There was also an increased VE but no significant O3 effect on VO2 or HR. Comparison of the females' responses to those of a group of young adult males (previously studied) at the same total O3 effective dose (i.e., expressed as the simple product of O3 concentration, VE, and exposure time) revealed significantly greater effects on FVC, FEV1.0, and fR for the females. With VE reduced for females as a function of exercise intensity at the same percent of maximum VO2, these differences were considerably attenuated, although not negated.« less
  • We evaluated the effects of low concentrations of ozone on the exercise performance and pulmonary function of 17 top-caliber endurance cyclists under conditions simulating competition and realistic temperature (3/sup 0/C). Each subject was randomly exposed to filtered air (FA), 0.12 and 0.20 ppm O/sub 3/ on separate days in an environmental chamber. Each subject attempted to maintain submaximal exercise on a cycle ergometer equivalent to approximately 70% of maximal oxygen consumption (VO/sub 2/max) for 60 min, followed by incremented (maximal) exercise until exhaustion. During submaximal exercise, average minute ventilation (VE) (89 L/min), VO/sub 2/ (51 ml/min/kg or 72% VO/sub 2/max),more » work load (260 W), and work time (57 min) were similar across all exposures. During maximal exercise, average peak VE (150 L/min), VO/sub 2/ (68 ml/min/kg), work load (382 W), and ride time (263 s) were similar between 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ and FA. However, significant reductions in peak VE (18%), VO/sub 2/ (16%), tidal volume (22%), work load (8%), and ride time (30%) occurred in 0.20 ppm O/sub 3/ compared with those in FA. Postexercise decrements in forced expired volume in one second (FEV1) averaged 5.6% and 21.6% in 0.12 and 0.20 ppm O/sub 3/, respectively. Ozone-related symptoms were mild in 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ but intensified and probably limited maximal performance in 13 subjects in 0.20 ppm O/sub 3/. Changes in carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (adjusted for alveolar volume) were not significant across exposures. Nine subjects showed histamine hyperresponsiveness (i.e., greater than 20% decrease from the control postdiluent FEV1) after exposure to 0.20 ppm O/sub 3/ as compared with 1 subject in 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)« less
  • The acute pulmonary responses of athletes after short-term exposure to ambient concentrations of NO{sub 2} during heavy exercise have been examined. Intercollegiate male athletes were screened for history of cardiac disease, respiratory disease, allergic conditions and extensive exposure to pollutants. After completion of serum IgE level determination, exercise tolerance test and methacholine challenge test with normal results, nine healthy subjects 18 to 23 years of age were exposed to filtered air and to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm NO{sub 2} for 30 min on different days while exercising on a treadmill. Pulmonary function parameters were measured before and after each exposure.more » In this study, no statistically significant changes were observed in FEV1, RT PEFR, and Vmax50% after exposure to 0.18 and 0.30 ppm NO{sub 2}. For these selected healthy athletes, short-term exposure to ambient NO{sub 2} levels during heavy exercise does not affect adversely the pulmonary function.« less
  • Episodes occasionally occur when ambient ozone (O/sub 3/) levels remain at or near 0.12 ppm for more than 6 h. Small decrements in lung function have been reported following 2-h exposures to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/. For short exposures to higher O/sub 3/ concentrations, lung function decrements are a function of exposure duration. Thus, we investigated the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ would result in progressively larger changes in respiratory function and symptoms over time. Ten nonsmoking males were exposed once to clean air and once to 0.12 ppm O/sub 3/ for 6.6 h. Exposures consistedmore » of six 50-min exercise periods, each followed by 10-min rest and measurement; a 35-min lunch period followed by the third exercise period. Exercise ventilation averaged approximately 40 L/min. Forced expiratory and inspiratory spirometry and respiratory symptoms were measured prior to exposure and after each exercise. Airway reactivity to methacholine was determined after each exposure. After correcting for the air exposures, FEV 1.0 was found to decrease linearly during the O/sub 3/ exposure and was decreased by an average of 13.0 percent at the end of exposure. Decreases in FVC and FEF24-75% were also linear and averaged 8.3 and 17.4 percent, respectively, at the end of exposure. On forced inspiratory tests, the FIVC and FIV05 were decreased 12.6 and 20.7 percent, respectively. Increases in the symptom ratings of cough and pain on deep inspiration were observed with O/sub 3/ exposure but not with clean air. Airway reactivity to methacholine was approximately doubled following O/sub 3/ exposure.« less
  • We examined changes in pulmonary function during resting exposure to concentrations of ozone at 0.75, 0.50, 0.25, and 0.00 parts/million (ppM), and determined the effect these exposures had on a subsequent maximum exercise test using filtered air. Resting 2-h exposure to 0.75 and 0.50 ppM ozone caused significant decrements in forced vital capacity. However, 0.00 and 0.25 ppM ozone induced no pulmonary decrement. None of the pollutant conditions reduced subsequent maximum exercise performance. The pulmonary function responses after the maximum capacity test returned to pre-ozone values for the 0.50 ppM condition, but were still significantly decreased for the 0.75 ppMmore » condition. It appeared that increased ventilation during ozone exposure plays a significant role only in inducing pulmonary function decrement, but not in facilitating the return of pulmonary function to normal values.« less