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Title: Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes

Abstract

An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
San Francisco General Hospital Medical Center, CA
OSTI Identifier:
5070819
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc.; (United States); Journal Volume: 256:2
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
63 RADIATION, THERMAL, AND OTHER ENVIRON. POLLUTANT EFFECTS ON LIVING ORGS. AND BIOL. MAT.; NICOTINE; BLOOD CHEMISTRY; TOBACCO PRODUCTS; EVALUATION; TOBACCO SMOKES; BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS; CARBON MONOXIDE; METABOLITES; PATIENTS; PUBLIC HEALTH; TAR; URINE; AEROSOLS; ALKALOIDS; AMINES; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM AGENTS; AZINES; AZOLES; BIOLOGICAL MATERIALS; BIOLOGICAL WASTES; BODY FLUIDS; CARBON COMPOUNDS; CARBON OXIDES; CHALCOGENIDES; COLLOIDS; DISPERSIONS; DRUGS; HETEROCYCLIC COMPOUNDS; MATERIALS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; ORGANIC NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OTHER ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; PARASYMPATHOLYTICS; PARASYMPATHOMIMETICS; PYRIDINES; PYRROLES; PYRROLIDINES; RESIDUES; SMOKES; SOLS; WASTES; 560306* - Chemicals Metabolism & Toxicology- Man- (-1987)

Citation Formats

Benowitz, N.L., Jacob, P. III, Yu, L., Talcott, R., Hall, S., and Jones, R.T. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes. United States: N. p., 1986. Web. doi:10.1001/jama.256.2.241.
Benowitz, N.L., Jacob, P. III, Yu, L., Talcott, R., Hall, S., & Jones, R.T. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes. United States. doi:10.1001/jama.256.2.241.
Benowitz, N.L., Jacob, P. III, Yu, L., Talcott, R., Hall, S., and Jones, R.T. Fri . "Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes". United States. doi:10.1001/jama.256.2.241.
@article{osti_5070819,
title = {Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes},
author = {Benowitz, N.L. and Jacob, P. III and Yu, L. and Talcott, R. and Hall, S. and Jones, R.T.},
abstractNote = {An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than other and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. The authors studied tar (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite continine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. The data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposure are considerably less than for other cigarettes.},
doi = {10.1001/jama.256.2.241},
journal = {JAMA, J. Am. Med. Assoc.; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 256:2,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 1986},
month = {Fri Jul 11 00:00:00 EDT 1986}
}
  • The data from consecutive surveys of the Tucson Epidemiologic Study (1981-1988) were used to evaluate the relationship in cigarette smokers of respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide (CO) yields of the cigarette. There were 690 subjects who reported smoking regularly in at least one survey, over age 15. After adjustment for intensity and duration of smoking and for depth of inhalation, the risk of chronic phlegm, cough, and dyspnea were not related to the tar and nicotine yields. In 414 subjects with pulmonary function tested in at least one of the three surveys the spirometricmore » indices used were significantly related to the daily dose of tar, nicotine, and CO (product of the cigarette yield and daily number of cigarettes smoked). The effects were more pronounced for past than for current doses. However, the differentiation of pulmonary function due to various yields of cigarettes was small in comparison to the difference in pulmonary function between smokers and nonsmokers.« less
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  • Thirty-two brands of US commercial cigarettes were analyzed for their deliveries of tar, nicotine, CO, CO/sub 2/, HCN, NO/sub x/, and acrolein under standard smoking conditions. Per cigarette and per puff deliveries were calculated. The sample suite contained filtered and non-filtered varieties, and relatively popular high, low, and medium tar delivery cigarettes. The range of deliveries of these constituents was considerable. Statistical analysis indicated that the deliveries of nicotine, CO, NO/sub x/, and HCN could usually be estimated to within 50% of their actual delivery if the tar delivery was known. However, brand to brand variation in the constituent ratiosmore » was sufficient so as to preclude the exact calculation of the delivery of one component from that of another.« less
  • A portable air sampling system has been used to assess exposures to various substances while commuting by bicycle in an urban area. The major source of pollutants in this situation is motor vehicle exhaust emissions. Carbon monoxide, measured by electrochemical detection, was found at peak concentrations in excess of 62 ppm, with mean values over 16 individual 35-mm journeys being 10.5 ppm. Respirable suspended particulates, averaged over each journey period, were found at higher concentrations (mean 130 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) than would be expected in indoor situations. Mean exposure to benzene (at 56 {mu}g m{sup {minus}3}) and other aromatic volatilemore » organic compounds was also relatively high. The influence of wind conditions on exposure was found to be significant. Commuting exposures to carbon monoxide, respirable suspended particulates, and aromatic VOCs were found to be higher than exposures in a busy high street and on common parkland.« less
  • Mice were exposed for 7 to 8 minutes on weekdays to fresh smoke from high-tar (HT) or low-tar (LT) cigarettes for varying periods of up to 36 weeks. Mice exposed to HT cigarettes exhibited more marked alterations in humoral immune responsiveness, hematological profiles, and pulmonary pathologic findings than those exposed to LT cigarettes. However, cell-mediated immune responsiveness to both bacterial and tumor-specific antigens was depressed similarly in animals exposed to HT or LT cigarettes. Furthermore, the growth rates of subcutaneously established tumors were enhanced similarly in the two groups, with respect to those in control animals.