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Title: Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures

Abstract

Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis DSM 30030 was not restricted to media containing organic forms of nitrogen. In both peptone-meat extract and defined media with ammonium and citrate as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O were produced under aerobic growth conditions. Heterotrophic nitrification was not attributable to old or dying cell populations. Production of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O was detectable shortly after cultures started growth and proceeded exponentially during the logarithmic growth phase. NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} production rates were higher for cultures inoculated in media with pH values below 7 than for those in media at alkaline pH. Neither assimilatory nor dissimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductase activities were detectable in aerobic cultures.

Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. (Fraunhofer-Institute for Atmospheric Environmental Research, Garmisch-Partenkirchen (Germany, F.R.))
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5052008
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied and Environmental Microbiology; (USA); Journal Volume: 55:8
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; BACTERIA; METABOLISM; CULTURE MEDIA; NITRIFICATION; NITROGEN OXIDES; BIOSYNTHESIS; AEROBIC CONDITIONS; GROWTH; PH VALUE; CHALCOGENIDES; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; MICROORGANISMS; NITROGEN COMPOUNDS; OXIDES; OXYGEN COMPOUNDS; SYNTHESIS 550500* -- Metabolism

Citation Formats

Papen, H., von Berg, R., Hinkel, I., Thoene, B., and Rennenberg, H. Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures. United States: N. p., 1989. Web.
Papen, H., von Berg, R., Hinkel, I., Thoene, B., & Rennenberg, H. Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures. United States.
Papen, H., von Berg, R., Hinkel, I., Thoene, B., and Rennenberg, H. 1989. "Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5052008,
title = {Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis: NO sub 2 sup minus , NO sub 3 sup minus , N sub 2 O, and NO production in exponentially growing cultures},
author = {Papen, H. and von Berg, R. and Hinkel, I. and Thoene, B. and Rennenberg, H.},
abstractNote = {Heterotrophic nitrification by Alcaligenes faecalis DSM 30030 was not restricted to media containing organic forms of nitrogen. In both peptone-meat extract and defined media with ammonium and citrate as the sole nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O were produced under aerobic growth conditions. Heterotrophic nitrification was not attributable to old or dying cell populations. Production of NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NO, and N{sub 2}O was detectable shortly after cultures started growth and proceeded exponentially during the logarithmic growth phase. NO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} and NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} production rates were higher for cultures inoculated in media with pH values below 7 than for those in media at alkaline pH. Neither assimilatory nor dissimilatory nitrate or nitrite reductase activities were detectable in aerobic cultures.},
doi = {},
journal = {Applied and Environmental Microbiology; (USA)},
number = ,
volume = 55:8,
place = {United States},
year = 1989,
month = 8
}
  • The authors investigated the effect of the partial pressure of oxygen (pO/sub 2/) on the production of NO and N/sub 2/O by a wide variety of common soil nitrifying, denitrifying, and nitrate-respiring bacteria under laboratory conditions. The production of NO per cell was highest by autotrophic nitrifiers and was independent of pO/sub 2/ in the range tested (0.5 to 10%), whereas N/sub 2/O production was inversely proportional to pO/sub 2/. Nitrous oxide production was highest in the denitrifier Pseudomonas fluorescens, but only under anaerobic conditions. The molar ratio of NO/N/sub 2/O produced was usually greater than unity for nitrifiers andmore » much less than unity for denitrifiers. Chemodenitrification was the major source of both the NO and N/sub 2/O produced by the nitrate respirer Serratia marcescens. Chemodenitrification was also a possible source of NO and N/sub 2/O produced by the nitrate respirer Serratia marcescens. Chemodenitrification was also a possible source of No and N/sub 2/O in nitrifier cultures but only when high concentrations of nitrite had accumulated or were added to the medium. Although most of the denitrifiers produced NO and N/sub 2/O only under anaerobic conditions, chemostat cultures of Alcaligenes faecalis continued to emit these gases even when the cultures were sprayed with air. Based upon these results, we predict that aerobic soils are primary sources of NO and that N/sub 2/O is produced only when there is sufficient soil moisture to provide the anaerobic microsites necessary for denitrification by either denitrifiers or nitrifiers.« less
  • Alcaligenes faecalis var. myxogenes 10C3, which produces large amounts of succinoglucan and small amounts of curdlan, was genetically unstable and mutated spontaneously to a form producing more curdland than succinoglucan when stocked on nutrient agar slants. The mutation occurred in the absence of cell division when the cells were incubated in saline and was enhanced by treatment with N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine, ethyl methane sulfonate, or ultraviolet light. Mutant strains were genetically stable and did not revert spontaneously for at least 1 year when stocked on nutrient agar slants.
  • Nitrous oxide production contributes to both greenhouse effect and ozone depletion in the stratosphere. A significant part of the global N2O emission can be attributed to microbial processes, especially nitrification and denitrification, used in biological wastewater treatment systems. This study looks at the efficiency of denitrification and the enzymes involved, with the emphasis on N2O production during the transient phase from aerobic to anaerobic conditions and vice versa. The effect of repetitive changing aerobic-anaerobic conditions on N2O was also studied. Alcaligenes faecalis was used as the model denitrofing organism. 35 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
  • A two-stage culture method of hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Alcaligenes eutrophus, is used to produce poly-D-3-hydroxybutyrate, P(3HB) from CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} without using a very high oxygen transfer rate while maintaining the O{sub 2} concentration in gas phase below 6.9 (v/v)% to prevent detonation of the gas mixture. The two-stage method consists of a heterotrophic culture using fructose as carbon source for exponential cell growth and an autotrophic culture for P(3HB) accumulation. The authors investigated the use of acetic acid as a cheaper carbon source than fructose for the heterotrophic culture in the two-stage method. However, the acetatemore » concentration in the culture system must be maintained at 1.0 g {center_dot} dm{sup {minus}3} since its inhibitory effect on the cell growth is very strong. Then, high cell density cultivation of A. eutrophus was investigated by pH-stat continuous feeding of acetic acid to control acetate concentration. Production of P(3HB) from CO{sub 2} is therefore expected as a possible means of solving the two environmental pollution problems: the green house effect due to the elevation of CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere and the disposal of nondegradable plastic waste.« less