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Title: Immobilized yeast for alcohol production

Abstract

Construction of a pilot alcohol plant has been completed in Japan to test a new idea in fermentation that could cut the time required from three or four days to several hours. According to developers, the key is an unidentified radiation-cured polymer that is used to immobilize yeast, permitting the process to run continuously.

Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
5050089
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Chem. Week; (United States); Journal Volume: 130:5
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; ALCOHOLS; PRODUCTION; JAPAN; BIOMASS CONVERSION PLANTS; YEASTS; IMMOBILIZED CELLS; FERMENTATION; OPTIMIZATION; PILOT PLANTS; ASIA; BIOCONVERSION; FUNCTIONAL MODELS; FUNGI; HYDROXY COMPOUNDS; MICROORGANISMS; ORGANIC COMPOUNDS; PLANTS 090222* -- Alcohol Fuels-- Preparation from Wastes or Biomass-- (1976-1989); 550700 -- Microbiology; 140504 -- Solar Energy Conversion-- Biomass Production & Conversion-- (-1989)

Citation Formats

Not Available. Immobilized yeast for alcohol production. United States: N. p., 1982. Web.
Not Available. Immobilized yeast for alcohol production. United States.
Not Available. 1982. "Immobilized yeast for alcohol production". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_5050089,
title = {Immobilized yeast for alcohol production},
author = {Not Available},
abstractNote = {Construction of a pilot alcohol plant has been completed in Japan to test a new idea in fermentation that could cut the time required from three or four days to several hours. According to developers, the key is an unidentified radiation-cured polymer that is used to immobilize yeast, permitting the process to run continuously.},
doi = {},
journal = {Chem. Week; (United States)},
number = ,
volume = 130:5,
place = {United States},
year = 1982,
month = 2
}
  • Yeast alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized in an albumin matrix crosslinked with 2.5 or 5.0% glutaraldehyde to give 102-1685/mu/m thick membranes. The enzyme half-life was at least doubled at pH 7.5 or 8.8 on immobilization. Values of the kinetic constants for the soluble and immobilized enzyme were determined at 25/degree/C and pH 8.8 over the range of 0.01-1.0M bulk solution concentration of ethanol as substrate and 140-1000/mu/M bulk solution concentration of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD/sup +/) as cofactor. The four kinetic constants for the soluble enzyme increased with immobilization of the enzyme. The Michaelis constants for NAD/sup +/ and for ethanolmore » were greater for the immobilized enzyme. The diffusional resistance to NAD/sup +/ transport, presented in terms of the Thiele modulus, showed that the overall rate of reaction was decreased by about 50% even at values of the modulus as low as 2.0. 21 refs.« less
  • The effects of substrate on stabilities of native (NA) and three kinds of immobilized yeast alcohol dehydrogenase (IMA), namely PGA (the carrier; porous glass), SEA (agarose gel) prepared covalently, and AMA (anion-exchange resin) prepared ionically, were studied. The following results were obtained. 1) The deactivations of NA and IMA free from the substrate or in the presence of ethanol obey the first-order kinetics, whereas, in the presence of butyraldehyde, their deactivation behaviors are explained on the basis of coexistence of two components of YADHs, namely the labile E1 and the comparatively stable E2, with different first-order deactivation constants. (2) Amore » few attempts for stabilization of IMA were carried out from the viewpoint of the effects of crosslinkages among the subunits of YADH for PGA and the multibonding between the carrier and enzyme for SEA. The former is effective for the stabilization, whereas the latter is not. (Refs. 19).« less
  • A study was conducted for the purpose of evaluating and selecting yeast strains for their ability to produce ethanol using sweet sorghum juice as the substrate. Stalks of sweet sorghum were obtained by cutting off the tops and stripping away the leaves. Fermentation media were prepared by diluting or adding dextrose to the sorghum juice to give a sugar concentration of either 10% (w/v) or 20% (w/v). All yeast strains were first tested in 10% (w/v) total sugar medium. Those strains showing more than 90% sugar conversion efficiency were further tested in 20% (w/v) total sugar medium. Active cultures formore » inoculation were prepared by growing the yeast strains on the fermentation medium (10% (w/v) total sugar) for 24 h. Then the cultures were added to the fermentation media at a rate of 2%.« less
  • A dialysate-feed, immobilized-cell dialysis continuous fermentation system was investigated as a method of relieving product inhibition in the conversion of glucose to ethanol by cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 4126. The substrate was fed into a continuous dialysate circuit and then into a batch fermentor circuit via diffusion through the microporous membranes of an intermediate dialyzer. Simultaneously, product was withdrawn from the fermentor circuit through the dialyzer membranes into the dialysate circuit and out in the effluent. Since the fermentor was operated without an effluent, the cells essentially were immobilized and converted substrate to product by maintenance metabolism. Contrary tomore » prior results with this novel system for the continuous fermentation of lactose to lactate by lactobacillus cells, a steady state of yeast cells in the fermentor did not occur initially but was obtained by the depletion of medium nitrogen and the prevention of cell breakage, although the substrate and product concentrations then became unsteady. The inherent advantages of the system was offset in the ethanol fermentation by relatively low productivity, which appeared to be limited by membrane permeability. (Refs. 15).« less
  • Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by Talaromyces emersonii is slowed markedly by the accumulation of considerable quantities of cellobiose. This article outlines a novel method for overcoming this problem whereby a culture filtrate containing a complete cellulase system be used in combination with calcium alginate gels containing both yeast and immobilized beta-glucosidase. As a preliminary to a full study, the experimental results of cellobiose conversion to ethanol are reported. (Refs. 13).