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Title: REDUCTION OF DOSE IN MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY

Abstract

In a survey in New York City, it was found that st run. Concent 2/3 of all the thousands of x-ray machines used for chest radiography were using beams in excess of the liberal 24-in. dia limitation (for routine chest radiography, the most common medical radiographic technic, the 14 by 17 in. x-ray film can be completely covered by an x-ray beam of 22-in. dia). In fact, 50% had beams in excess of 30-in. dia. For the average adult patient, this results in the direct irradiation of the eyes and gonads, thereby exposing these organs to hundreds of times as much radiation as is necessary for a satisfactory chest x-ray examination. Another common practice is the use of a fluoroscope for any x-ray examination that could be done equally well, or better, with a film. In New York City, of st run. Concent 5000 fluoroscopes in use, 30% are more than 15 years old. Modern screens are twice as sensitive as 15-yr-old screens were when they were new. Fluoroscope screens are perishable and should be replaced every few years. Another important safety factor in the use of fluoroscopes is the dark adaptation of the operator's eyes. This can be aidedmore » by the use of special red dark-adaptation goggles. It is evident that extreme precautions in fluoroscopy are important when it is considered that even a properly performed fiuoroscopic examination can result in 100 times the exposure of a comparable examination using a film. Other problems, presented by surveys of medical and dental radiographic practices in New York City, include the use of slow films and improper development, inadequate filtration and limitation of beam diameter, and failure to shield the patients' gonads or the operator. (TCO)« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
New York City Office of Radiation Control, New York
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE
OSTI Identifier:
4731326
NSA Number:
NSA-17-020248
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Public Health (U.S.) Title varies: Am. J. Public Health Nation's Health, v18 1928-v60 1970; Journal Volume: Vol: 52; Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-63
Country of Publication:
Country unknown/Code not available
Language:
English
Subject:
HEALTH AND SAFETY; BEAMS; BODY; BONES; CONFIGURATION; EYES; FILTERS; FLUORESCENCE; GONADS; IMAGES; INSPECTION; IRRADIATION; LABORATORY EQUIPMENT; MAN; MEDICINE; NUCLEAR EMULSIONS; PERSONNEL; PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM; RADIATION DOSES; RADIATION PROTECTION; RADIOGRAPHY; SAFETY; SHIELDING; STANDARDS; TEETH; X RADIATION

Citation Formats

Blatz, H. REDUCTION OF DOSE IN MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. Country unknown/Code not available: N. p., 1962. Web. doi:10.2105/AJPH.52.9.1385.
Blatz, H. REDUCTION OF DOSE IN MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY. Country unknown/Code not available. doi:10.2105/AJPH.52.9.1385.
Blatz, H. Sat . "REDUCTION OF DOSE IN MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY". Country unknown/Code not available. doi:10.2105/AJPH.52.9.1385.
@article{osti_4731326,
title = {REDUCTION OF DOSE IN MEDICAL AND INDUSTRIAL RADIOGRAPHY},
author = {Blatz, H.},
abstractNote = {In a survey in New York City, it was found that st run. Concent 2/3 of all the thousands of x-ray machines used for chest radiography were using beams in excess of the liberal 24-in. dia limitation (for routine chest radiography, the most common medical radiographic technic, the 14 by 17 in. x-ray film can be completely covered by an x-ray beam of 22-in. dia). In fact, 50% had beams in excess of 30-in. dia. For the average adult patient, this results in the direct irradiation of the eyes and gonads, thereby exposing these organs to hundreds of times as much radiation as is necessary for a satisfactory chest x-ray examination. Another common practice is the use of a fluoroscope for any x-ray examination that could be done equally well, or better, with a film. In New York City, of st run. Concent 5000 fluoroscopes in use, 30% are more than 15 years old. Modern screens are twice as sensitive as 15-yr-old screens were when they were new. Fluoroscope screens are perishable and should be replaced every few years. Another important safety factor in the use of fluoroscopes is the dark adaptation of the operator's eyes. This can be aided by the use of special red dark-adaptation goggles. It is evident that extreme precautions in fluoroscopy are important when it is considered that even a properly performed fiuoroscopic examination can result in 100 times the exposure of a comparable examination using a film. Other problems, presented by surveys of medical and dental radiographic practices in New York City, include the use of slow films and improper development, inadequate filtration and limitation of beam diameter, and failure to shield the patients' gonads or the operator. (TCO)},
doi = {10.2105/AJPH.52.9.1385},
journal = {American Journal of Public Health (U.S.) Title varies: Am. J. Public Health Nation's Health, v18 1928-v60 1970},
number = ,
volume = Vol: 52,
place = {Country unknown/Code not available},
year = {Sat Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1962},
month = {Sat Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1962}
}
  • The need for radiation control in medical and industrial situations is discussed, along with ways and means to achieve this aim. (P.C.H.)
  • Radioactive materials are used in a wide variety of applications throughout the developed world. Common uses for these materials include medical isotopes, nuclear power plants, and industrial radiography devices. These materials provide great benefits to mankind in their myriad applications and are relatively safe when properly used. Safety precautions used in the handling of these materials are designed to be highly conservative and in most instances, the benefits provided by these materials outweigh the inherent risks involved in their use. A variety of occurrences will periodically combine to create a situation where all design safeguards are bypassed. When this occurs,more » the consequences can prove to be disastrous for the persons involved. This article will illustrate factors leading up to accidents involving radioactive materials, the consequences of those accidents, and what steps can be taken to minimize those consequences.« less
  • Various industrial applications of x rays are discussed and the problem of the occupational x-ray exposure of the working staff is pointed out. The monitoring system in Ganz-Mavag factory in Budapest is presented. A comparison of dosimetric data and clinical findings revealed that although the monthly measured doses recived are low, symptoms corresponding to radiation damage are found in the blood and on the skin of exposed workers. (auth)
  • This comparative clinical investigation concerns the radiation dose from intraoral radiography using E-speed film and rectangular and circular beam collimation. Dose to organs not of diagnostic importance (brain, lens of the eye, thyroid, and breast) is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude when rectangular collimation and E-speed film are used in periapical radiography. And dose to the thyroid and breast is further reduced by a third with the use of a full leaded apron and thyroid shield.