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Title: Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

Abstract

Lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste (MSW), fiber resulting from grain operations, waste cellulosics (e.g. paper and pulp operations), and energy crops. Taken together, these materials represent one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. The conversion of even a small portion of this resource to ethanol could substantially reduce current gasoline consumption and dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic materials are composed of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose polymers can be hydrolyzed into their component sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, respectively, which can then be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol and fuel additives from ethanol have properties useful for dealing with urban air pollution. In addition, using renewable lignocellulosic resources for ethanol production can reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby aid in the prevention of global warming. Moreover, producing ethanol from an abundant domestic lignocellulosic resource will provide new opportunities for agriculture. In an overall process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, the biomass is first pretreated by mechanical and chemical processes. An acid-based pretreatment process is one method that can be used to hydrolyze the hemicellulose to xylose. To hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose, processesmore » based on the use of acids or cellulase enzyme can then be used. For enzymatic processes, the rate and yield of glucose from cellulose depends on the characteristics of the cellulose enzymes, which are synthesized by cellulolytic microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. A variety of microorganisms can be used to ferment xylose and glucose to ethanol. 178 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. and others
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
460364
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Advances in Solar Energy
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 7; Other Information: PBD: 1992
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
09 BIOMASS FUELS; ETHANOL FUELS; SYNTHESIS; BIOMASS; ACID HYDROLYSIS; AUTOMOTIVE FUELS; COMMINUTION; FERMENTATION; XYLOSE; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; SACCHARIFICATION; CELLULOSE

Citation Formats

Schell, D J, McMillian, J D, and Philippidis, G P. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. United States: N. p., 1992. Web.
Schell, D J, McMillian, J D, & Philippidis, G P. Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass. United States.
Schell, D J, McMillian, J D, and Philippidis, G P. Thu . "Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass". United States.
@article{osti_460364,
title = {Ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass},
author = {Schell, D J and McMillian, J D and Philippidis, G P},
abstractNote = {Lignocellulosic biomass includes agricultural and forestry residues, municipal solid waste (MSW), fiber resulting from grain operations, waste cellulosics (e.g. paper and pulp operations), and energy crops. Taken together, these materials represent one of the most abundant renewable resources on earth. The conversion of even a small portion of this resource to ethanol could substantially reduce current gasoline consumption and dependence on petroleum. Lignocellulosic materials are composed of three major components: cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. The cellulose and hemicellulose polymers can be hydrolyzed into their component sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, respectively, which can then be fermented to ethanol. Ethanol and fuel additives from ethanol have properties useful for dealing with urban air pollution. In addition, using renewable lignocellulosic resources for ethanol production can reduce the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and thereby aid in the prevention of global warming. Moreover, producing ethanol from an abundant domestic lignocellulosic resource will provide new opportunities for agriculture. In an overall process for converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, the biomass is first pretreated by mechanical and chemical processes. An acid-based pretreatment process is one method that can be used to hydrolyze the hemicellulose to xylose. To hydrolyze the cellulose to glucose, processes based on the use of acids or cellulase enzyme can then be used. For enzymatic processes, the rate and yield of glucose from cellulose depends on the characteristics of the cellulose enzymes, which are synthesized by cellulolytic microorganisms such as fungi or bacteria. A variety of microorganisms can be used to ferment xylose and glucose to ethanol. 178 refs., 3 figs., 14 tabs.},
doi = {},
journal = {Advances in Solar Energy},
number = ,
volume = 7,
place = {United States},
year = {1992},
month = {12}
}