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Title: Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples

Abstract

Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sitesmore » can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
458281
Report Number(s):
CONF-961149-
Journal ID: ISSN 1087-8939; TRN: 97:006846
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 17. annual meeting of the Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry: partnerships for the environment - science, education, and policy, Washington, DC (United States), 17-21 Nov 1996; Other Information: PBD: 1995; Related Information: Is Part Of SETAC 17. annual meeting -- Abstract book. Partnerships for the environment: Science, education, and policy; PB: 378 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 56 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, APPLIED STUDIES; COAL GASIFICATION PLANTS; CYANIDES; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; METABOLISM; MEASURING METHODS; BIOLOGICAL AVAILABILITY; BIOASSAY; MONITORING

Citation Formats

Magee, B., Taft, A., Ratliff, W., Kelley, J., Sullivan, J., and Pancorbo, O. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples. United States: N. p., 1995. Web.
Magee, B., Taft, A., Ratliff, W., Kelley, J., Sullivan, J., & Pancorbo, O. Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples. United States.
Magee, B., Taft, A., Ratliff, W., Kelley, J., Sullivan, J., and Pancorbo, O. Sun . "Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_458281,
title = {Physiologically available cyanide (PAC) in manufactured gas plant waste and soil samples},
author = {Magee, B. and Taft, A. and Ratliff, W. and Kelley, J. and Sullivan, J. and Pancorbo, O.},
abstractNote = {Iron-complexed cyanide compounds, such as ferri-ferrocyanide (Prussian Blue), are wastes associated with former manufactured gas plant (MGP) facilities. When tested for total cyanide, these wastes often show a high total cyanide content. Because simple cyanide salts are acutely toxic, cyanide compounds can be the subject of concern. However, Prussian Blue and related species are known to have a low order of human and animal toxicity. Toxicology data on complexed cyanides will be presented. Another issue regarding Prussian Blue and related species is that the total cyanide method does not accurately represent the amount of free cyanide released from these cyanide species. The method involves boiling the sample in an acidic solution under vacuum to force the formation of HCN gas. Thus, Prussian Blue, which is known to be low in toxicity, cannot be properly evaluated with current methods. The Massachusetts Natural Gas Council initiated a program with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection to develop a method that would define the amount of cyanide that is able to be converted into hydrogen cyanide under the pH conditions of the stomach. It is demonstrated that less than 1% of the cyanide present in Prussian Blue samples and soils from MGP sites can be converted to HCN under the conditions of the human stomach. The physiologically available cyanide method has been designed to be executed at a higher temperature for one hour. It is shown that physiologically available cyanide in MGP samples is < 5--15% of total cyanide.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1995},
month = {Sun Dec 31 00:00:00 EST 1995}
}

Conference:
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  • This investigation was undertaken to evaluate the bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from manufactured gas plant residue (MGP) in soils. Pyrene metabolite excretion in urine and chemical:DNA adduct formation in forestomach and lung of mice were used as indicators of bioavailability. Analyses of excretion data indicated that the bioavailability of pyrene from neat MGP and soils contaminated with MGP was 35 to 52% and 1 to 6%, respectively. Generally, the bioavailability of pyrene was considerably decreased when MGP is adsorbed on soil particles. Chemical:DNA data indicated that the bioavailability of the PAH responsible for chemical:DNA adduct formation varies between soilmore » samples. In addition, these data suggest that urinary PAH metabolites may not provide an accurate assessment of the bioavailability of the compounds responsible for DNA adduct formation.« less
  • Manufactured gas plants (MGPs) operated from the mid-nineteenth century to the 1950`s, producing wastes characterized by tars and oils comprised of compounds including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Active soil gas methods have been used at MGP sites to help locate these wastes in soil and ground water as part of initial site investigations. However, active methodology is generally limited to detection of only the volatiles present, while passive methods have shown limited success at MGP sites. A new passive soil vapor survey has been developed and validated over the past two years which helps tomore » address these limitations. By using a time-integrated approach and a unique soil vapor collector the GORE-SORBER{reg_sign} Screening Survey has proven to successfully detect PAH compounds as well as volatiles. This technology features a patented, passive sorbent collector constructed from GORE-TEX{reg_sign} expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE), which allows for efficient vapor transfer from the subsurface to the adsorbent, but prevents liquid water and particulate from impacting sample integrity and sensitivity. This discussion describes the unique qualities of this passive soil gas technology and presents the results of a recent application at a former MGP site in the eastern United States with comparison to the results from previous soil and ground water investigations conducted at the site.« less
  • The biological treatability of subsurface soil contaminated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) waste was evaluated. Mineralization assays incorporating {sup 14}C-phenanthrene were used to evaluate the biotransformation potential of indigenous microorganisms at the site. Multi-phase laboratory microcosms were used to evaluate the interphase transfer potential and chemical mass distribution of phenanthrene mineralization was influenced by nutrient addition and by the amount of contamination. The chemical mass distribution of {sup 14}C-phenanthrene indicated that volatilization may be an important transport mechanism for chemicals residing in, or migrating to the vadose zone of soil. Following removal of the coal-tar waste source at the site,more » the toxicity of water soluble extracts of the site soil decreased to a non-toxic response based upon Microtox{trademark} assay results. Parent compound compound concentrations at the site also decreased with time subsequent to source removal. Results of this study indicate that natural in situ bioremediation may be an important treatment process at a former manufactured gas plant waste site in New York. 21 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less
  • The microbial clean-up of cyanide and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) in soils from manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites is the subject of this study. Cyanide was examined for its inhibition on microbial PAH degradation by an MGP-soil isolate identified as a strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by classical differential methods as well as 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes. A strong cyanide-degrading Bacillus pumilus (ATCC No. 7061) strain was used for facilitating cyanide degradation thereby enhancing PAH biodegradation in this soil. This research has validated cyanide interference with the PAH degrader and shown that adding Bacillus pumilus accomplishes the removal of cyanide whichmore » subsequently allows Pseudomonas aeruginosa to metabolize PAHs. In addition to the biodegradation of cyanide and lower ring numbered PAHs, the microbial degradation of 4-ring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) by using a mixed culture obtained from another former coal tar contaminated site was also studied. The rate of biotransformation and the abiotic loss due to volatilization were monitored. The 3-ring PAH used in this project was phenanthrene and the 4-ring PAHs used were fluoranthene and pyrene. The results showed that volatilization loss of naphthalene in the control system was substantial while volatilization of higher molecular weight PAH compounds (fluoranthene and pyrene) was negligible. The biodegradation rates of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene are 6.56, 1.59 and 0.82 mg/L/day, respectively or 65.6, 15.9, 8.2 mg/gram of cells/day assuming 100 mg cells/L in the system. This study indicates that biodegradation of 3- and 4-ring PAHs by mixed cultures obtained from PAH contaminated sites is very promising. These studies will contribute to the understanding of PAH and cyanide removal from MGP and provide information for the design of a bioremediation project to reclaim unusable land that was contaminated through the previous coal gasification process.« less
  • Wastes associated with manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites are known to contain various cyanide complexes. Problems exist relative to evaluating the true cyanide content of these solid wastes. These problems are, in general, related to lack of standard laboratory methods for extracting and analyzing leachate or distillates from solid samples. Samples of MGP purifier wastes were analyzed by two university laboratories under carefully controlled conditions to establish absolute levels of total cyanide in the samples. Duplicate samples were submitted to several commercial laboratories for analysis of total cyanide. Results from the university studies and commercial laboratories were compared. Based onmore » the study, an extraction method can be defined that will provide more accurate and reproducible results for total cyanide contained in solid samples. A high alkaline extraction is recommended when analyzing MGP samples for cyanide. When disposing of cyanide-containing wastes, maintaining the natural acidic pH will control leaching of cyanide.« less