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Title: Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel

Abstract

During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elementsmore » between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center
OSTI Identifier:
457177
Report Number(s):
CONF-961089-
ON: DE97004100; TRN: 97:002105-0026
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Beneficial Reuse `96: 4. annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal, Knoxville, TN (United States), 22-24 Oct 1996; Other Information: PBD: Feb 1997; Related Information: Is Part Of Beneficial reuse `96: The fourth annual conference on the recycle and reuse of radioactive scrap metal; PB: 546 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
05 NUCLEAR FUELS; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; CARBON STEELS; MELTING; RADIOISOTOPES; THERMODYNAMICS; RADIOACTIVE WASTES; CONTAMINATION; ARC FURNACES

Citation Formats

Thurber, W.C., and MacKinney, J. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel. United States: N. p., 1997. Web.
Thurber, W.C., & MacKinney, J. Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel. United States.
Thurber, W.C., and MacKinney, J. Sat . "Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/457177.
@article{osti_457177,
title = {Distribution of radionuclides during melting of carbon steel},
author = {Thurber, W.C. and MacKinney, J.},
abstractNote = {During the melting of steel with radioactive contamination, radionuclides may be distributed among the metal product, the home scrap, the slag, the furnace lining and the off-gas collection system. In addition, some radionuclides will pass through the furnace system and vent to the atmosphere. To estimate radiological impacts of recycling radioactive scrap steel, it is essential to understand how radionuclides are distributed within the furnace system. For example, an isotope of a gaseous element (e.g., radon) will exhaust directly from the furnace system into the atmosphere while a relatively non-volatile element (e.g., manganese) can be distributed among all the other possible media. This distribution of radioactive contaminants is a complex process that can be influenced by numerous chemical and physical factors, including composition of the steel bath, chemistry of the slag, vapor pressure of the particular element of interest, solubility of the element in molten iron, density of the oxide(s), steel melting temperature and melting practice (e.g., furnace type and size, melting time, method of carbon adjustment and method of alloy additions). This paper discusses the distribution of various elements with particular reference to electric arc furnace steelmaking. The first two sections consider the calculation of partition ratios for elements between metal and slag based on thermodynamic considerations. The third section presents laboratory and production measurements of the distribution of various elements among slag, metal, and the off-gas collection system; and the final section provides recommendations for the assumed distribution of each element of interest.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1997},
month = {Sat Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 1997}
}

Conference:
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