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Title: Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia

Abstract

DNA fragments from a genomic library were used to establish the partial structure of the human dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene (DRD3). Its coding sequence contains 6 exons and stretches over 40,000 base pairs. The complete DRD3 transcript and three shorter variants, in which the second and/or third exon are deleted, were detected in similar proportions in brains from four controls and three psychiatric patients. The Msp I polymorphism was localized in the fifth intron of the gene, 40,000 base pairs downstream the Bal I polymorphism and a PCR-based method was developed for genotyping this polymorphism. The distributions of the Msp I and Bal I genotypes were not independent in 297 individuals ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.5, df = 4, P = 0.03), but only a weak association was found between allele 1 of the Bal I polymorphism and allele 2 of the Msp I polymorphism ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.99, df = 1, P = 0.04). The previously reported association between homozygosity at both alleles of the Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia was presently maintained in an extended sample, comprising 119 DSM-III-R chronic schizophrenics and 85 controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 5.3, df = 1, P = 0.02) and found more important inmore » males than in females. The presence of the Bal I allele 2 is associated with an early age at onset, particularly in males (df = 35, t value = 2.6, P = 0.014). In the same sample, allelic frequencies, genotype counts, and proportion of homozygotes for the Msp I polymorphism did not differ between schizophrenics and controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.80, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.22, df = 1, P = 0.90 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.16, df = 1, P = 0.69, respectively). The large distance of the Msp I polymorphism from the Bal I polymorphism and its localization in the 3{prime} part of the gene may explain the discrepant results obtained with the two polymorphisms. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Centre Paul Broca de l`INSERM, Paris (France) [and others
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
437199
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: American Journal of Medical Genetics; Journal Volume: 67; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: PBD: 16 Feb 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; PATIENTS; HEREDITARY DISEASES; MENTAL DISORDERS; NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; GENOTYPE; DOPAMINE; RECEPTORS; TRANSCRIPTION; GENE MUTATIONS; STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIPS; SPLICING; GENETIC MAPPING; AGE DEPENDENCE; SEX DEPENDENCE; HUMAN CHROMOSOME 3; DNA SEQUENCING; POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION; STATISTICS; RFLPS

Citation Formats

Griffon, N., Pilon, C., and Martres, M.P. Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960216)67:1<63::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-N.
Griffon, N., Pilon, C., & Martres, M.P. Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia. United States. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960216)67:1<63::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-N.
Griffon, N., Pilon, C., and Martres, M.P. 1996. "Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia". United States. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960216)67:1<63::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-N.
@article{osti_437199,
title = {Dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene: Organization transcript variants, and polymorphism associated with schizophrenia},
author = {Griffon, N. and Pilon, C. and Martres, M.P.},
abstractNote = {DNA fragments from a genomic library were used to establish the partial structure of the human dopamine D{sub 3} receptor gene (DRD3). Its coding sequence contains 6 exons and stretches over 40,000 base pairs. The complete DRD3 transcript and three shorter variants, in which the second and/or third exon are deleted, were detected in similar proportions in brains from four controls and three psychiatric patients. The Msp I polymorphism was localized in the fifth intron of the gene, 40,000 base pairs downstream the Bal I polymorphism and a PCR-based method was developed for genotyping this polymorphism. The distributions of the Msp I and Bal I genotypes were not independent in 297 individuals ({chi}{sup 2} = 10.5, df = 4, P = 0.03), but only a weak association was found between allele 1 of the Bal I polymorphism and allele 2 of the Msp I polymorphism ({chi}{sup 2} = 3.99, df = 1, P = 0.04). The previously reported association between homozygosity at both alleles of the Bal I polymorphism and schizophrenia was presently maintained in an extended sample, comprising 119 DSM-III-R chronic schizophrenics and 85 controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 5.3, df = 1, P = 0.02) and found more important in males than in females. The presence of the Bal I allele 2 is associated with an early age at onset, particularly in males (df = 35, t value = 2.6, P = 0.014). In the same sample, allelic frequencies, genotype counts, and proportion of homozygotes for the Msp I polymorphism did not differ between schizophrenics and controls ({chi}{sup 2}= 0.06, df = 1, P = 0.80, {chi}{sup 2} = 0.22, df = 1, P = 0.90 and {chi}{sup 2} = 0.16, df = 1, P = 0.69, respectively). The large distance of the Msp I polymorphism from the Bal I polymorphism and its localization in the 3{prime} part of the gene may explain the discrepant results obtained with the two polymorphisms. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.},
doi = {10.1002/(SICI)1096-8628(19960216)67:1<63::AID-AJMG11>3.0.CO;2-N},
journal = {American Journal of Medical Genetics},
number = 1,
volume = 67,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 2
}
  • To determine whether mutations in the D{sub 5} dopamine receptor (D{sub 5}DR) gene are associated with schizophrenia, the gene was examined in 78 unrelated schizophrenic individuals. After amplification by the polymerase chain reaction, products were examined by dideoxy fingerprinting (ddF), a highly sensitive screening method related to single strand conformational polymorphism analysis. All samples with unusual ddF patterns were sequenced to precisely identify the sequence change. In the 156 D{sub 5}DR alleles examined, nine sequence changes were identified. Four of the nine did not affect protein structure; of these, three were silent changes and one was a transition in themore » 3{prime} untranslated region. The remaining five sequence changes result in protein alterations: of these, one is a missense change in a non-conserved amino acid, 3 are missense changes in amino acids that are conserved in some dopamine D{sub 5} receptors and the last is a nonsense mutation. To investigate whether the nonsense mutation was associated with schizophrenia, 400 additional schizophrenic cases of western European descent and 1914 ethnically-similar controls were screened for the change. One additional schizophrenic carrier was identified and verified by direct genomic sequencing (allele frequency: .0013), but eight carriers also were found and confirmed among the non-schizophrenics (allele frequency: .0021)(p>.25). The gene was re-examined in all newly identified carriers of the nonsense mutation by direct sequencing and/or ddF in search of additional mutations. None were identified. Family studies also were conducted to investigate possible cosegregation of the mutation with other neuropsychiatric diseases, but this was not demonstrated. Thus, the mutation does not appear to be associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia nor does an initial analysis suggest cosegregation with other neuropsychiatric disorders or symptom complexes.« less
  • We report the results of a linkage study in 24 families multiply affected with schizophrenia using a polymorphic DNA sequence encoding the third cytoplasmic loop of the dopamine D4 receptor. Two-point LOD score analyses with a range of single gene models ranging from near dominant to near recessive revealed no evidence for linkage. In addition, we examined the data by non-parametric sib-pair analysis and found no excess sharing of alleles between affected sib-pairs. We therefore conclude that mutations within the dopamine D4 receptor gene do not have a major aetiological role in schizophrenia in our collection of pedigrees. 20 refs.,more » 2 tabs.« less
  • Crocq et al. reported the existence of an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity of a BalI polymorphism in the first exon of the dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) gene. In response to this report, further studies were conducted; however, these studies yielded conflicting results. In the present study, we examined 100 unrelated Japanese schizophrenics and 100 normal controls to determine any association between this polymorphism and schizophrenia. Results suggest that neither allele nor genotype frequencies of the DRD3 gene in the schizophrenics as a whole are significantly different from those of the controls. Further, we found no association between any allelemore » or genotype and any clinical subtype based on family history of schizophrenia and age-at-onset. A significantly high frequency of homozygosity of a dopamine D3 receptor gene allele was not observed in the schizophrenics as a whole, or in clinical subtypes. Our results suggest that an association between the dopamine D3 receptor gene and schizophrenia is unlikely to exist. 26 refs., 1 tab.« less
  • Several studies have reported an association between schizophrenia and homozygosity for the MscI restriction site in exon 1 of the D3 dopamine receptor gene, but other studies have failed to find this association. Recent reports have suggested that the association is most salient in male patients with a family history of schizophrenia. We examined this restriction site in a group of schizophrenic patients (n = 84) and in normal controls (n = 77). Patients were subdivided according to demographic and clinical features, particular attention being paid to movement disorders. No significant difference in allelic or genotypic distribution was seen betweenmore » the two groups. No association was seen between homozygosity and a positive family history, age at onset of illness, clinical subtype, negative symptom score, or movement disorder scores. 33 refs., 2 tabs.« less
  • Genetic factors are clearly involved in the etiology of schizophrenia, but their specific nature is unknown. If the genetic etiology is multifactorial or polygenic, the role of specific genes as susceptibility factors can be directly evaluated by examining allelic variation at these loci among cases in comparison with controls. Two studies have independently demonstrated an association of schizophrenia with homozygosity at the dopamine D3 receptor gene (D3RG) locus, using a biallelic polymorphism in the first exon of D3RG. These results are important because D3RG is a favored candidate gene. Three other studies have identified associations among sub-groups of patients, butmore » the majority were negative. The present study involved patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III-R criteria) of Caucasian or African-American ethnicity (n=130). Two groups of controls, matched for ethnicity, were used: adults screened for schizophrenia (n=128) and unselected neonates (n=160). Multivariate analysis revealed an association between allele no. 1 homozygosity and schizophrenia in comparison with adult, but not neonatal controls. The association was most marked among Caucasian patients with a family history of schizophrenia (odds ratio 13.7, C.I. 1.8, 104.3). An association of the D3RG locus with age of onset (AOO) was also noted. The discrepancies in earlier studies may due to variations in control groups, differencies in mean AOO among different cohorts, or ethnic variations in susceptibility attributable to D3RG.« less