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Title: THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Period covered October 15, 1955 to January 15, 1957

Abstract

The results of a program to evaluate the resistance of a number of coatings for Cu, Ni, Ta, and graphite to erosion, oxidation, and thermal shock under high temperature service conditions are summarized. Specimens were tested in the throat of a hydrogen-oxygen rocket motor which could produce a maximum heat flux of approximately 3000 Btu/sec sq ft, and a maximum temperature of approximately 5500 deg F. The results indicate that several coatings have properties of promise. These coatings include Rokide A, Cr, and Cr-Ni coatings for Cu; Rokide A and Cr coatings for Ni; and a Rokide C coating for graphite. In general, flame sprayed and electrodeposited types of coatings appeared to be the most successful. None of the coatings for Ta that were tested were successful. The failure of coatings on Ta appears to be the result of oxidation of the Ta through the coatings; a successful Ta coating, if developed, should have a low porosity. Tests of coatings applied by vapor deposition indicated that these coatings have relatively poor adhesion and are subject to erosion. (auth)

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, Ohio
OSTI Identifier:
4330506
Report Number(s):
WADC-TR-57-317; AD-131070
NSA Number:
NSA-12-001404
DOE Contract Number:
AF33(616)-3227
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Project title: THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Task title: PHYSICAL MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF ATLAS MATERIALS. Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-58
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
MINERALOGY, METALLURGY, AND CERAMICS; ADHESION; CHROMIUM; CHROMIUM ALLOYS; COATING; COPPER; CORROSION; ELECTRODEPOSITION; GRAPHITE; HIGH TEMPERATURE; LABORATORY EQUIPMENT; MATERIALS TESTING; NICKEL; NICKEL ALLOYS; OXIDATION; POROSITY; QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS; SPUTTERING; STABILITY; TANTALUM; TESTING; THERMAL STRESSES; VAPORS

Citation Formats

Spraker, W.A., Weller, A.E., Hess, R.E., Harp, J.L., and Bagby, F.L. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Period covered October 15, 1955 to January 15, 1957. United States: N. p., 1957. Web.
Spraker, W.A., Weller, A.E., Hess, R.E., Harp, J.L., & Bagby, F.L. THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Period covered October 15, 1955 to January 15, 1957. United States.
Spraker, W.A., Weller, A.E., Hess, R.E., Harp, J.L., and Bagby, F.L. Wed . "THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Period covered October 15, 1955 to January 15, 1957". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_4330506,
title = {THE DEVELOPMENT OF TESTING PROCEDURES AND THE EVALUATION OF COATINGS FOR TANTALUM, GRAPHITE, NICKEL, AND COPPER. Period covered October 15, 1955 to January 15, 1957},
author = {Spraker, W.A. and Weller, A.E. and Hess, R.E. and Harp, J.L. and Bagby, F.L.},
abstractNote = {The results of a program to evaluate the resistance of a number of coatings for Cu, Ni, Ta, and graphite to erosion, oxidation, and thermal shock under high temperature service conditions are summarized. Specimens were tested in the throat of a hydrogen-oxygen rocket motor which could produce a maximum heat flux of approximately 3000 Btu/sec sq ft, and a maximum temperature of approximately 5500 deg F. The results indicate that several coatings have properties of promise. These coatings include Rokide A, Cr, and Cr-Ni coatings for Cu; Rokide A and Cr coatings for Ni; and a Rokide C coating for graphite. In general, flame sprayed and electrodeposited types of coatings appeared to be the most successful. None of the coatings for Ta that were tested were successful. The failure of coatings on Ta appears to be the result of oxidation of the Ta through the coatings; a successful Ta coating, if developed, should have a low porosity. Tests of coatings applied by vapor deposition indicated that these coatings have relatively poor adhesion and are subject to erosion. (auth)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 1957},
month = {Wed Jul 10 00:00:00 EDT 1957}
}

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  • Eight systems of metal reinforced refractory coatings were investigated. These systems were based on sodium silicate, frit, aluminum phosphate, and borosilicate glass binders with refractory grain fillers, designed to insulate airc raft structural members operating in the thermal range of 2000 to 3000 deg F. Thermal drops of as high as 10 deg F per thousandth in. of coating thickness at equilibrium were observed with lag times up to 60 sec to attain equilibrium under laboratory test conditions. (auth)
  • The purpose of this project was to develop a process for bonding tantalum sheet to OFHC coppe. This was successfully accomplished both by casting molten copper directly into an annealed tantalum ccone under controlled vacuum- inert gas atmospheres, and by using integrity, vacuum bonded joints between OFHC copper and annealed tantalum. Metallurgical and microhardness e effected, with ductile interfaces, in joining OFHC copper to annealed tantalum by vaccuum-inert gas techniques. Physical tests on brazed copper-tantalum er deg flat bends and in a cold forming of flat composite plate into nose-cone shapes. Elevated temperature tests on copper-tantalum clad nose-cones, both uncoatedmore » and metal or ceramic coated on the exposed tantalum surfaces, exhibited the ability of selected brazing alloys to maintain intimate contact between the copper and tantalum at temperatures up to the melting point of copper. The high thermal conductivity of the copper layer enabled it to absorb sufficient heat from the tantalum surface to allow the tantalum cone shell to contain the molten copper as long as two minutes at temperatures above 2000 deg C (measured optically on the exposed tantalum). (auth)« less
  • Specimens of several matcrials, both with and without protective coatings, were subjected to severe heat pulses to determine thcir capacity as a heat sink. Results were compared on the basis of the amount of heat a specimen could absorb without experiencing surface failure by melting or chemical reaction. The heat pulses were imposed by placing the materials in the throat of an H/sub 2/ --O/sub 2/ rocket motor and operating the motor in such a manner that the heat flux increased to a maximum in 12 seconds and decreased during the next 12 seconds. By suitable calibration, the instantaneous appliedmore » heat flux and the integrated heat impulses were determined. It was found that 1-inch-thick copper can absorb an integrated heat impulse of 12,000 Btu/ (ft/sup 2/) in a 24-second period when the maximum heat flux at the midpoint of the pulse is 822 Btu/ft/sup2 /)(sec). Similarly, nickel can absorb 7500 Btu/(ft/sup 2/) with a maximum flux of 570 Btu/(ft/sup 2/)(sec). Graphite protected by a coating of silicon carbide formed in place can absorb approximately 9000 Btu/ft/sup 2/) in a strongly oxidizing atmosphere with a peak heat flux of 600 Btu/(ft/sup 2/)(sec) before the protective coating is destroyed. More severe exposure caused drastic failure of the surfacc of each of these materials. (auth)« less
  • The electrodeposition of nickel--aluminum alloy coatings for the protection of Thermold J Alloy steel was investigated because of certain properties of the alloy, namely, extreme hardness and oxidation resistance. The alloy was formed by plating aluminum upon a layer of nickel. When the fused salt baths operated above the melting point of aluminum, the alloy was formed directly. When the aluminum was deposited at lower temperatures, the samples were later heated to form the alloy by diffusion. Oxidation data and salt spray corrosion resistance of the alloyplated steel are given. Optimum protection of the steel was afforded by the alloymore » formed at 700 deg C, consisting of 2 mils of nickel and 0.2 mil of aluminum. (auth)« less