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Title: A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1000 F. Period Covered: January 1, 1956 to March 31, 1957

Abstract

The use of bearings made from hot work steels and other tool steels fn experimental engines has resulted in a few premature engine failures. Unfortunately, very little has been known about the elevated temperature properties such as hot hardness, compressive yield strength, resistance to softening and structural and dimensional stability of these hot work and other tool steels. The work done to obtain these material properties for 29 steels ranging in type from SAE 52100, its modifications, to hot work and other tool steels is reported. An analysis of the data obtained shows that Halmo, VSM, M50, M10, Tl, M2, M1 and two experimental compositions one, Steel B, containing 0.70 C, 4.20 Cr, 0.60 V, and 5.30 Mo, and the other, Steel G, containing 1.31 C, 4.07 Cr, 4.13 V, 5.75 W, and 4.87 Mo, are suitable for elevated temperature aircraft bearing application. From a point of view of temperature range of application these steels have been classified as follows: room temperature up to 700 deg F, Halmo 1; room temperature up to 800 deg F, VSM, M5O, M1O, and Steel B; and room temperature up to 900 deg F, Tl, M2, M1, and Steel G. None of the steelsmore » investigated appeared suitable for application at 1000 deg F. (auth)« less

Authors:
;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Crucible Steel Co. of America, Pittsburgh
OSTI Identifier:
4312511
Report Number(s):
WADC-TR-57-343; AD-142117
NSA Number:
NSA-12-005335
DOE Contract Number:
AF33(616)-3318
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Project title: METALLIC MATERIALS. Task title: HIGH TEMPERATURE ALLOYS. Orig. Receipt Date: 31-DEC-58
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
ENGINEERING; AIRCRAFT; ALLOYS; BEARINGS; CARBON; CHROMIUM ALLOYS; FAILURES; HARDNESS; HIGH TEMPERATURE; HOT WORKING; METALLURGY; MOLYBDENUM ALLOYS; PRESSURE; STEELS; TOOLS; TUNGSTEN ALLOYS; VANADIUM ALLOYS

Citation Formats

Bhat, G.K., and Nehrenberg, A.E. A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1000 F. Period Covered: January 1, 1956 to March 31, 1957. United States: N. p., 1957. Web.
Bhat, G.K., & Nehrenberg, A.E. A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1000 F. Period Covered: January 1, 1956 to March 31, 1957. United States.
Bhat, G.K., and Nehrenberg, A.E. Sun . "A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1000 F. Period Covered: January 1, 1956 to March 31, 1957". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_4312511,
title = {A STUDY OF THE METALLURGICAL PROPERTIES THAT ARE NECESSARY FOR SATISFACTORY BEARING PERFORMANCE AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED BEARING ALLOYS FOR SERVICE UP TO 1000 F. Period Covered: January 1, 1956 to March 31, 1957},
author = {Bhat, G.K. and Nehrenberg, A.E.},
abstractNote = {The use of bearings made from hot work steels and other tool steels fn experimental engines has resulted in a few premature engine failures. Unfortunately, very little has been known about the elevated temperature properties such as hot hardness, compressive yield strength, resistance to softening and structural and dimensional stability of these hot work and other tool steels. The work done to obtain these material properties for 29 steels ranging in type from SAE 52100, its modifications, to hot work and other tool steels is reported. An analysis of the data obtained shows that Halmo, VSM, M50, M10, Tl, M2, M1 and two experimental compositions one, Steel B, containing 0.70 C, 4.20 Cr, 0.60 V, and 5.30 Mo, and the other, Steel G, containing 1.31 C, 4.07 Cr, 4.13 V, 5.75 W, and 4.87 Mo, are suitable for elevated temperature aircraft bearing application. From a point of view of temperature range of application these steels have been classified as follows: room temperature up to 700 deg F, Halmo 1; room temperature up to 800 deg F, VSM, M5O, M1O, and Steel B; and room temperature up to 900 deg F, Tl, M2, M1, and Steel G. None of the steels investigated appeared suitable for application at 1000 deg F. (auth)},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1957},
month = {Sun Sep 01 00:00:00 EDT 1957}
}

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  • To develop a bearing steel fer operating temperatures up to 1000 F, fifty-one experimental compositions were studied. The theoretical considerations are described which formed the basis of the formulation of these steels as well as the annealing cycle, austenitizing temperature survey, and the tempering survey. The results of the tempering studies are plotted as "master tempering curves." From the study of the temper resistance, eight steels were selected for further evaluation tests. These tests consisted of hot hardness determinations, dimensional stability measurements, compression tests at room temperature and elevated temperature, oxidation resistance, and hot oil corrosion resistance. As a resultmore » of the foregoing tests, a steel of the following composition is recommended for use as a bearing steel for operating temperatures up to 1000 F: C-1.09, Cr-4.2, V-1.9, W-6.7, Mo-3.7, and Co-5.2. The steel should be heat- treated as follows: austenitize at 2225 F, oil quench, and temper for two consecutive 2-hour periods at 1050 F. This work has not only developed a steel fer elevated-temperature bearing applications but it has also clarified the effects of alloying elements on secondary hardness, hardness retention at elevated temperatures, and other properties desired of a high-temperature bearing steel. (auth)« less
  • A study was made of the effect of forging and heat treatment variables on the mechanical properties of Ti-Al--Mo alloy and the effect of sponge quality on the mechanical properties of Al--Mo alloy. The tensile, creeprupture, and stability properties of Al-- Ti-- Nb, Al -- Ge --Mo, and Al--Ge-- Mo--Ti alloys were evaluated. (auth)
  • A polarized-light metallographic technique capable of supplying information on the orientation of individual grains in a polycrystalline Mg aggregate was developed and used as a tool in several orientation studies. The distribution of preferentially oriented grains in various extruded alloys was examined, and it was found that elongated clusters of grains of one orientation alternate with clusters of another orientation throughout much of the extrusion thickness. Inhomogeneous flow or ' banding'' has been found to be an important deformation mechanism during the cold rolling of certain alloys and the hot compression of alloy cylinders. The bands are believed to bemore » formed by a fracture-glide mechanism. Banding may be operative during hot rolling with large reductions per pass and could account for the observed double peak in the preferred orientation of most rolled alloys. Polycrystalline material with a preferred orientation close to the ideal can be twinned almost completely by the application of a sufficient compressive stress parallel to the sheet surface; on annealing, the heavily twinned metal recrystallizes in a preferred orientation markedly different from the initial ideal orientation. (auth)« less
  • The flow and fracture characteristics of commercial purity powder metallurgy niobium were investigated in the range 250 to --196 deg C. Niobium was found to undergo a ductile-brittle transition in the range --125 to --196 deg C, and the transition temperature range of niobium was found to be less affected by the presence of interstitial impurities than many other body-centered cubic metals. The creeprupture properties of powder metallurgy niobium were investigated at 982 and 1O93 deg C (1800 and 2OOO deg F), and the 100-hour rupture strength of commercial niobium in vacuum was determined to be sigdicantiy greater than unalloyedmore » molybdenum. The creep-rupture results suggest that small quantities of gaseous contaminants may be responslble for the high strength of commercial niobium at elevated temperatures. The oxidation behavior of nioblum was investigated in the temperature range 350 to 7OO C. At the higher temperatures, oxidation followed a linear rate law. Between 500 and 625 deg C, the rate of oxidation was found to be nearly independent of temperature. Oxygen and nitrogen contamination of welding atmospheres was studied to determine its effect on the weld properties of niobium. Nitrogen was establlshed to be very detrimental to the mechanical properties of niobium welds. High-purity niobium, having a hardness of less than 60 VPN, was produced by cage-zone refinieg techniques. (auth)« less
  • The electrical resistivities for cast AZ3lA & B, AZ63A, AZ8lA, AZ9lC, AZ92A, AM100A, EK30A, EK41A, EZ33A. HK31A, rolled HK31A and HM21XA, and cast HZ32A were determined at room temperature and in some cases up to 500 deg F The values at 68 deg F ranged from l7.2 microhm/cm/sup 3/ for AM100A-T4 to 9.2 microhm/cm/sup 3/ for AZ31A & B-F & -T4 and from 7.7 microhm/cm/sup 3/ for cast HK31A-T6 to 5.0 ranged from 11.6 microhm/cm/sup 3/ for EK41A-T6 to 9.1 containing alloys. Room temperature resistivity measurements on cast EM31 and EK31 ranged between 7.8 and 5.5 The temperature coefficients ofmore » electrical resistivity were fairly constant, ranging from 0.8 to 1.0 microhm/cm/sup 3/- deg F. Calculations of thermal conductivity from electrical data are reported for AZ31A & B, AZ63A, AZ81A, AZ91C, AZ92A, AM100A, EK30A, EK41A, EZ33A, HK31A, HM21XA, and HZ32A. The temperature coefficients of thermal conductivity were all positive and decreased with increasing temperature. Enthalpy, specific heat, and heat of fusion were measured for AZ31B, HK31A, HM21XA, HM31XA, and ZK60A. The heat of fusion seemed to decrease with increasing alloy content from 82 cal/gm for HM2lXA to 76 cal/gm for ZK60A. At temperatures around 500 deg F the specific heats of the alloys were about the same as that of pure Mg except the specific heat of AZ31B which was somewhat higher. (auth)« less