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Title: Method of delineation of homogeneous social-ecological areas

Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab., Tenn. (USA)
OSTI Identifier:
Report Number(s):
NSA Number:
DOE Contract Number:
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: Orig. Receipt Date: 30-JUN-75
Country of Publication:
United States

Citation Formats

Loebl, A.S., and Campbell, R.R. Method of delineation of homogeneous social-ecological areas. United States: N. p., 1974. Web.
Loebl, A.S., & Campbell, R.R. Method of delineation of homogeneous social-ecological areas. United States.
Loebl, A.S., and Campbell, R.R. 1974. "Method of delineation of homogeneous social-ecological areas". United States. doi:.
title = {Method of delineation of homogeneous social-ecological areas},
author = {Loebl, A.S. and Campbell, R.R.},
abstractNote = {},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1974,
month =

Technical Report:
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  • The traditional dichotomies of urban and rural may no longer be valid. Investigating whether or not there are socially significant areal units to redefine rural and urban areas, the report described one attempt to delineate such units and to test them for sociological utility. Counties were placed in homogeneous social units based upon the characteristics of the resident population. The methods utilized were termed 'factor ecology' and the phenomenon chosen for the test of social utility was selected patterns of migration. The latter choice was arbitrary; the emphasis herein concerned methods and their verification. The areas tested--208 counties in Missourimore » and Nebraska-- were for experimental purposes only, but they did represent a broad range of socioeconomic conditions. The process used 8 steps: (1) determine the relevant variables that describe each county's population; (2) subject these to factor analysis; (3) from step 2 obtain the factors and significant variables for each factor; (4) determine the index score for each factor for each county through the use of factor loadings; (5) standardize the index scores; (6) divide the standardized scores into quartiles; (7) delineate the counties into homogeneous, non-continuous social units based upon the quartiles; and (8) test the resulting areal units by comparing them with areal units formed through analysis of migration patterns.« less
  • In 1989, the Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey prepared the report under an agreement with the Environmental Protection Agency to evaluate methods for wellhead protection area (WHPA) delineation in unconfined fractured-rock aquifers. Two fractured-rock settings were selected for the study: Precambrian crystalline rocks in central Wisconsin and Silurian dolomite in northeastern Wisconsin. The methods tested ranged from simple approaches to complex computer models. Four WHPA delineation approaches are suggested for unconfined fractured-rock aquifers that do not behave as porous media.
  • Groundwater at Camp Ripley, Minnesota, is recharged both on post and off site and discharged to rivers, wetlands, and pumping wells. The subsurface geologic materials have a wide range of permeabilities and are arranged in a complex fashion as a result of the region's multiple glacial advances. Correlation of individual glacial geologic units is difficult, even between nearby boreholes, because of the heterogeneities in the subsurface. This report documents the creation of a numerical model of groundwater flow for Camp Ripley and hydrologically related areas to the west and southwest. The model relies on a hydrogeological conceptual model built onmore » the findings of a University of Minnesota-Duluth drilling and sampling program conducted in 2001. Because of the site's stratigraphic complexity, a geostatistical approach was taken to handle the uncertainty of the subsurface correlation. The U.S. Geological Survey's MODFLOW code was used to create the steady-state model, which includes input data from a variety of sources and is calibrated to water levels in monitoring wells across much of the site. This model was used for several applications. Wellhead protection zones were delineated for on-site production wells H, L, and N. The zones were determined on the basis of a probabilistic assessment of the groundwater captured by these wells; the assessment, in turn, had been based on multiple realizations of the study area's stratigraphy and groundwater flowfield. An additional application of the model was for estimating flowpaths and times of travel for groundwater at Camp Ripley's range areas and waste management facilities.« less
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  • Development of substitute energy sources in lieu of non-renewable fossil fuels was addressed. The study was based on the projection that by the turn of the century almost half of the world's oil, gas, and coal resources will be consumed. In this study, an analysis was made of biomass energy conversion and its ecological, social, economic, and energy constraints. Estimates of the total biomass in the United States that could be utilized in energy production were presented. Biomass sources considered were feed processing wastes, crop remains, animal wastes, forestry wastes, fuel-wood production, brown-kelp farming, and water hyacinth. For the analysis,more » two methods were examined for converting biomass into useful forms of energy--incineration and biogas production. Results indicated that use of these methods could reduce the nation's dependence upon fossil fuels by about five percent. Prime difficulties identified in the use of biomass for solar energy conversion were the (1) small percentage of light energy converted into biomass by plants; (2) low concentration of biomass per unit of land and water; and (3) high moisture content making collection and transport expensive and energy conversion inefficient. Suggestions were made to prevent harmful consequences to the environment from biomass conversion. Effects on the nation's labor force and related social problems were considered.« less