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Title: Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms

Abstract

Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press andmore » sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.« less

Authors:
;  [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
  2. Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, Menai (Australia); and others
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
420655
Report Number(s):
CONF-951259-
ON: DE96011798; TRN: 97:002138
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: Plutonium stabilization and immobilization workshop, Washington, DC (United States), 12-14 Dec 1995; Other Information: PBD: May 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of US Department of Energy Plutonium Stabilization and Immobilization Workshop, December 12-14, 1995: Final proceedings; PB: 474 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
05 NUCLEAR FUELS; PLUTONIUM; STABILIZATION; WASTE FORMS; CHEMICAL COMPOSITION; ACTINIDES; CERAMICS; CESIUM; HOLLANDITE; NEUTRON ABSORBERS; RUTILE; ZIRCONOLITE; PRESSING

Citation Formats

Ebbinghaus, B B, Van Konynenburg, R A, Vance, E R, and Jostsons, A. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Ebbinghaus, B B, Van Konynenburg, R A, Vance, E R, & Jostsons, A. Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms. United States.
Ebbinghaus, B B, Van Konynenburg, R A, Vance, E R, and Jostsons, A. Wed . "Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/420655.
@article{osti_420655,
title = {Status of plutonium ceramic immobilization processes and immobilization forms},
author = {Ebbinghaus, B B and Van Konynenburg, R A and Vance, E R and Jostsons, A},
abstractNote = {Immobilization in a ceramic followed by permanent emplacement in a repository or borehole is one of the alternatives currently being considered by the Fissile Materials Disposition Program for the ultimate disposal of excess weapons-grade plutonium. To make Pu recovery more difficult, radioactive cesium may also be incorporated into the immobilization form. Valuable data are already available for ceramics form R&D efforts to immobilize high-level and mixed wastes. Ceramics have a high capacity for actinides, cesium, and some neutron absorbers. A unique characteristic of ceramics is the existence of mineral analogues found in nature that have demonstrated actinide immobilization over geologic time periods. The ceramic form currently being considered for plutonium disposition is a synthetic rock (SYNROC) material composed primarily of zirconolite (CaZrTi{sub 2}O{sub 7}), the desired actinide host phase, with lesser amounts of hollandite (BaAl{sub 2}Ti{sub 6}O{sub 16}) and rutile (TiO{sub 2}). Alternative actinide host phases are also being considered. These include pyrochlore (Gd{sub 2}Ti{sub 2}O{sub 7}), zircon (ZrSiO{sub 4}), and monazite (CePO{sub 4}), to name a few of the most promising. R&D activities to address important technical issues are discussed. Primarily these include moderate scale hot press fabrications with plutonium, direct loading of PuO{sub 2} powder, cold press and sinter fabrication methods, and immobilization form formulation issues.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1996},
month = {5}
}

Conference:
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