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Title: A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques

Abstract

Spotlight synthetic aperture radar images can be formed from the complex phase history data using two main techniques: (1) polar-to-cartesian interpolation followed by two-dimensional inverse Fourier transform (2DFFT), and (2) convolution backprojection (CBP). CBP has been widely used to reconstruct medical images in computer aided tomography, and only recently has been applied to form synthetic aperture radar imagery. It is alleged that CBP yields higher quality images because (1) all the Fourier data are used and (2) the polar formatted data is used directly to form a 2D Cartesian image and therefore 2D interpolation is not required. This report compares the quality of images formed by CBP and several modified versions of the 2DFFT method. We show from an image quality point of view that CBP is equivalent to first windowing the phase history data and then interpolating to an exscribed rectangle. From a mathematical perspective, we should expect this conclusion since the same Fourier data are used to form the SAR image. We next address the issue of parallel implementation of each algorithm. We dispute previous claims that CBP is more readily parallelizable than the 2DFFT method. Our conclusions are supported by comparing execution times between massively parallel implementationsmore » of both algorithms, showing that both experience similar decreases in computation time, but that CBP takes significantly longer to form an image.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE, Washington, DC (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
399697
Report Number(s):
SAND-96-2460
ON: DE97000605; TRN: 96:006395
DOE Contract Number:
AC04-94AL85000
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Oct 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
44 INSTRUMENTATION, INCLUDING NUCLEAR AND PARTICLE DETECTORS; 99 MATHEMATICS, COMPUTERS, INFORMATION SCIENCE, MANAGEMENT, LAW, MISCELLANEOUS; SYNTHETIC-APERTURE RADAR; IMAGES; ALGORITHMS; TOMOGRAPHY; FOURIER TRANSFORMATION

Citation Formats

Knittle, C.D., Doren, N.E., and Jakowatz, C.V. A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.2172/399697.
Knittle, C.D., Doren, N.E., & Jakowatz, C.V. A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques. United States. doi:10.2172/399697.
Knittle, C.D., Doren, N.E., and Jakowatz, C.V. 1996. "A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques". United States. doi:10.2172/399697. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/399697.
@article{osti_399697,
title = {A comparison of spotlight synthetic aperture radar image formation techniques},
author = {Knittle, C.D. and Doren, N.E. and Jakowatz, C.V.},
abstractNote = {Spotlight synthetic aperture radar images can be formed from the complex phase history data using two main techniques: (1) polar-to-cartesian interpolation followed by two-dimensional inverse Fourier transform (2DFFT), and (2) convolution backprojection (CBP). CBP has been widely used to reconstruct medical images in computer aided tomography, and only recently has been applied to form synthetic aperture radar imagery. It is alleged that CBP yields higher quality images because (1) all the Fourier data are used and (2) the polar formatted data is used directly to form a 2D Cartesian image and therefore 2D interpolation is not required. This report compares the quality of images formed by CBP and several modified versions of the 2DFFT method. We show from an image quality point of view that CBP is equivalent to first windowing the phase history data and then interpolating to an exscribed rectangle. From a mathematical perspective, we should expect this conclusion since the same Fourier data are used to form the SAR image. We next address the issue of parallel implementation of each algorithm. We dispute previous claims that CBP is more readily parallelizable than the 2DFFT method. Our conclusions are supported by comparing execution times between massively parallel implementations of both algorithms, showing that both experience similar decreases in computation time, but that CBP takes significantly longer to form an image.},
doi = {10.2172/399697},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month =
}

Technical Report:

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  • This paper studies the implementation of polar format, synthetic aperture radar image formation in modern Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA's). The polar format algorithm is described in rough terms and each of the processing steps is mapped to FPGA logic. This FPGA logic is analyzed with respect to throughput and circuit size for compatibility with airborne image formation.
  • IFP V4.0 is the fourth generation of an extraordinarily powerful and flexible image formation processor for spotlight mode synthetic aperture radar. It has been successfully utilized in processing phase histories from numerous radars and has been instrumental in the development of many new capabilities for spotlight mode SAR. This document provides a brief history of the development of IFP, a full exposition of the signal processing steps involved, and a short user's manual for the software implementing this latest iteration.
  • Most producing geothermal fields and known geothermal resources in the Basin and Range province are associated with Quaternary active fault systems, within which hydrothermal fluids are presumed to circulate from depth to relatively shallow production levels through high permeability fractures. Research at the Dixie Valley field by Barton et al. (1997) indicates that hydraulically conductive fractures within the Stillwater fault zone are those that have orientations such that the fractures are critically stressed for normal shear failure under the regional tectonic stress field. In general, therefore, we might expect geothermal resources to occur in areas of high inter-seismic strain accumulation,more » and where faults are favorably oriented with respect to the regional strain tensor; in the case of Basin and Range normal faults, these would generally be faults striking normal to the direction of maximum extension. Expanding this hypothesis, Blewitt et al. (2003), based on preliminary, broad-scale analysis of regional strain and average fault strike in the northwestern Basin and Range, have proposed that geothermal resources occur in areas where fault-normal extension associated with shear strain is the greatest. Caskey and Wesnousky (2000) presented evidence that the Dixie Valley field occupies a 10 km-long gap between prehistoric Holocene ruptures of the fault segments on either side. Modeled maximum shear and Coulomb failure stress are high within the gap owing to the stress concentrations at the ends of the ruptures. These results suggest that a major contributing factor to the enhanced permeability at fault-hosted geothermal systems may be localized stress and strain concentrations within fault zone segments. This notion is generally consistent with the common occurrence of geothermal fields within fault offsets (pull-aparts) along strike-slip fault systems, where the local strain field has a large extensional component (e.g., Salton Sea and Coso). Blewitt et al. (2003) suggested that resources correlate with abrupt changes in fault orientation and with changes in the direction of extensional strain.« less
  • Synthetic-aperture image-enhancement techniques have been used to improve the resolution in ultrasonic images. In general it is believed that global surface variations will not degrade the resolution of the image but only produce errors in the location of the image relative to the actual location of the flaw. A sample which has a surface variation which is not untypical of the shrinkage around a weld is imaged in ultrasound. The image produced with standard synthetic-aperture enhancement which does not include corrections for the surface variations is of no better quality than the unenhanced image. The image produced accounting for themore » surface variations by using the front surface echo to map the surface does resolve the flaws. However, due to transducer side-lobe interference, the front-surface echo does not map the surface accurately enough for the enhancement algorithm to produce precise locations for the images of the flaws. Enhanced images of targets viewed with ultrasonic shear waves also show improved resolution. However, the problems with transducer side-lobes interfering with the front surface echo are worse with shear waves. Also the reconstruction process is more complex. Both these lead to inaccuracies in the locations of the flaws. Phase and amplitude measurements of waves reflected from a crack as a function of frequency and aperture position show promise of discriminating crack size. Measurements made on stainless-steel bars with fatigue cracks are discussed.« less