skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nanoindentation studies of single-crystal (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented TiN layers on MgO

Abstract

The mechanical properties of (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented MgO wafers and 1-{mu}m-thick TiN overlayers, grown simultaneously by dc magnetron sputter deposition at 700{degree}C in a mixed N{sub 2} and Ar discharge, were investigated using nanoindentation. A combination of x-ray-diffraction (XRD) pole figures, high-resolution XRD analyses, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to show that all TiN films were single crystals with N/Ti ratios of 1.0{plus_minus}0.05. The nanoindentation measurements were carried out using a three-sided pyramidal Berkovich diamond indentor tip operated at loads ranging from 0.4 to 40 mN. All three orientations of MgO substrates, as-received, exhibited identical hardness values as determined using the Oliver and Pharr method. After a 1 h anneal at 800{degree}C, corresponding to the thermal treatment received prior to film growth, the measured hardness of MgO(001) was 9.0{plus_minus}0.3 GPa. All TiN films displayed a completely elastic response at low loads. Measured hardness values, which decreased with increasing loads, increased in the order (011){lt}(001){lt}(111). After a 30 s postdeposition anneal at 1000{degree}C, however, hardness was found to be independent of load except at displacements {gt}100 nm where substrate effects were apparent. TiN(001) and (111) films had hardnesses of 20{plus_minus}0.8 and 21{plus_minus}1 GPa, respectively, while data obtained from (011)more » layers exhibited large scatter due to surface roughness effects. Young{close_quote}s moduli for annealed samples, calculated from the elastic unloading curves, were found to be 307{plus_minus}15 GPa for MgO (001) and 445{plus_minus}38 and 449{plus_minus}28 GPa for TiN (001) and TiN (111), respectively. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [1];  [3];  [1]
  1. Thin Film Physics Division, Department of Physics, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
  2. Division of Engineering Materials, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Linkoeping University, S-581 83 Linkoeping (Sweden)
  3. Department of Materials Science, the Coordinated Science Laboratory, and the Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois, 1101 West Springfield Avenue, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
397420
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Applied Physics
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 80; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: PBD: Dec 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; TITANIUM NITRIDES; HARDNESS; LAYERS; SPUTTERING; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; ELASTICITY; ANNEALING; YOUNG MODULUS; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; SPUTTERED MATERIALS; INDENTATION; XRD

Citation Formats

Ljungcrantz, H, Oden, M, Hultman, L, Greene, J E, and Sundgren, J. Nanoindentation studies of single-crystal (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented TiN layers on MgO. United States: N. p., 1996. Web. doi:10.1063/1.363799.
Ljungcrantz, H, Oden, M, Hultman, L, Greene, J E, & Sundgren, J. Nanoindentation studies of single-crystal (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented TiN layers on MgO. United States. doi:10.1063/1.363799.
Ljungcrantz, H, Oden, M, Hultman, L, Greene, J E, and Sundgren, J. Sun . "Nanoindentation studies of single-crystal (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented TiN layers on MgO". United States. doi:10.1063/1.363799.
@article{osti_397420,
title = {Nanoindentation studies of single-crystal (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented TiN layers on MgO},
author = {Ljungcrantz, H and Oden, M and Hultman, L and Greene, J E and Sundgren, J},
abstractNote = {The mechanical properties of (001)-, (011)-, and (111)-oriented MgO wafers and 1-{mu}m-thick TiN overlayers, grown simultaneously by dc magnetron sputter deposition at 700{degree}C in a mixed N{sub 2} and Ar discharge, were investigated using nanoindentation. A combination of x-ray-diffraction (XRD) pole figures, high-resolution XRD analyses, and Auger electron spectroscopy was used to show that all TiN films were single crystals with N/Ti ratios of 1.0{plus_minus}0.05. The nanoindentation measurements were carried out using a three-sided pyramidal Berkovich diamond indentor tip operated at loads ranging from 0.4 to 40 mN. All three orientations of MgO substrates, as-received, exhibited identical hardness values as determined using the Oliver and Pharr method. After a 1 h anneal at 800{degree}C, corresponding to the thermal treatment received prior to film growth, the measured hardness of MgO(001) was 9.0{plus_minus}0.3 GPa. All TiN films displayed a completely elastic response at low loads. Measured hardness values, which decreased with increasing loads, increased in the order (011){lt}(001){lt}(111). After a 30 s postdeposition anneal at 1000{degree}C, however, hardness was found to be independent of load except at displacements {gt}100 nm where substrate effects were apparent. TiN(001) and (111) films had hardnesses of 20{plus_minus}0.8 and 21{plus_minus}1 GPa, respectively, while data obtained from (011) layers exhibited large scatter due to surface roughness effects. Young{close_quote}s moduli for annealed samples, calculated from the elastic unloading curves, were found to be 307{plus_minus}15 GPa for MgO (001) and 445{plus_minus}38 and 449{plus_minus}28 GPa for TiN (001) and TiN (111), respectively. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}},
doi = {10.1063/1.363799},
journal = {Journal of Applied Physics},
number = 12,
volume = 80,
place = {United States},
year = {1996},
month = {12}
}