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Title: Active musculoskeletal structures equipped with a circulatory system and a network of ionic polymeric gel muscles

Abstract

Presented are descriptions of design and fabrication of an active musculoskeletal structure composed of an artificial human skeleton of 5.3 feet in height. This skeletal structure is further equipped with an artificial heart in the form of a multi-channel computer-controlled fluid pump. The fluid pump may be programmed to selectively pump either an acid, a base or de-ionized water to a network of veins that feed a network of pairs of antagonist contractile synthetic muscles. These muscles are manufactured in the laboratory from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber bundles that are specially designed and packaged inside flexible, hyperelastic latex membranes. Each pair of muscles act as a pair of antagonist actuator similar to the biceps and triceps muscles of the human arm. The initial fabrication indicates that it is possible to dynamically control such active musculoskeletal structures. A model is also presented for the dynamic control of such antagonist muscles. The model is intended to be used to study the human musculoskeletal dynamics.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
395229
Report Number(s):
CONF-940691-
ISBN 1-56676-171-9; TRN: IM9648%%352
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 2. international conference on intelligent materials, Williamsburg, VA (United States), 5-8 Jun 1994; Other Information: PBD: 1994; Related Information: Is Part Of Second international conference on intelligent materials: Proceedings; Rogers, C.A.; Wallace, G.G. [eds.]; PB: 1410 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
55 BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE, BASIC STUDIES; SKELETON; FUNCTIONAL MODELS; MUSCLES; SIMULATION; COMPUTERIZED CONTROL SYSTEMS; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; DYNAMICS; CONTROL

Citation Formats

Shahinpoor, M., and Mojarrad, M. Active musculoskeletal structures equipped with a circulatory system and a network of ionic polymeric gel muscles. United States: N. p., 1994. Web.
Shahinpoor, M., & Mojarrad, M. Active musculoskeletal structures equipped with a circulatory system and a network of ionic polymeric gel muscles. United States.
Shahinpoor, M., and Mojarrad, M. 1994. "Active musculoskeletal structures equipped with a circulatory system and a network of ionic polymeric gel muscles". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_395229,
title = {Active musculoskeletal structures equipped with a circulatory system and a network of ionic polymeric gel muscles},
author = {Shahinpoor, M. and Mojarrad, M.},
abstractNote = {Presented are descriptions of design and fabrication of an active musculoskeletal structure composed of an artificial human skeleton of 5.3 feet in height. This skeletal structure is further equipped with an artificial heart in the form of a multi-channel computer-controlled fluid pump. The fluid pump may be programmed to selectively pump either an acid, a base or de-ionized water to a network of veins that feed a network of pairs of antagonist contractile synthetic muscles. These muscles are manufactured in the laboratory from polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fiber bundles that are specially designed and packaged inside flexible, hyperelastic latex membranes. Each pair of muscles act as a pair of antagonist actuator similar to the biceps and triceps muscles of the human arm. The initial fabrication indicates that it is possible to dynamically control such active musculoskeletal structures. A model is also presented for the dynamic control of such antagonist muscles. The model is intended to be used to study the human musculoskeletal dynamics.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1994,
month =
}

Conference:
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  • A polymer gel is defined as a cross-linked polymer network swollen in a liquid medium. These gels possess an ionic structure in the sense that they are generally composed of a number of fixed ions pertaining to sites of various polymer cross-links and segments and mobile ions (counter ions) due to the presence of a solvent which is electrolytic. Ionic polymeric gels are three-dimensional networks of cross-linked macromolecular polyelectrolytes that swell or shrink in aqueous solutions on addition of alkali or acids, respectively. Linear reversible dilation and contraction of the order of more than 1,000 percent have been observed inmore » the laboratory for polyacrylonitrile (PAN) fibers. Furthermore, it has been experimentally observed that swelling and shrinking of ionic gels can also be induced electrically. Thus, direct computer control of large expansions and contractions of ionic polymeric gels by means of a voltage gradient appears to be possible. A mechanism is presented for the reversible nonhomogeneous large deformations and in particular bending of strips of ionic polymeric gels in the presence of an electric field. Exact expressions are given relating the deformation characteristics of the gel to the electric field strength or voltage gradient, gel dimensions and other physical parameters such as the resistance and the capacitance of the gel strip. It is concluded that direct voltage control of such nonhomogeneous large deformations in ionic polymeric gels is possible. These electrically controlled deformations may find unique applications in robotics, artificial muscles, large motion actuator designs, drug delivery systems and smart materials, adaptive structures and systems.« less
  • This paper presents several applications of ionizable polymeric gels that are capable of undergoing substantial expansions and contractions when subjected to changing pH environments, temperature, or solvent. Conceptual designs for smart, electrically activated devices exploiting this phenomenon are discussed. These devices have the possibility of being manipulated via active computer control as large displacement actuators for use in adaptive structures. The enabling technology of these novel devices is the use of compliant containers for the gels and their solvents, removing the difficulties associated with maintaining a bath for the gels. Though most of these devices are designed using properties wellmore » discussed in the literature, some presented near the end of this paper make use of conclusions that the authors have drawn form the literature and their own experimental work. Those conclusions about the basic mechanisms of electromechanical gels are discussed in the third part of this paper and a complete set of governing equations describing these mechanisms are presented in the fourth section. This paper concludes with a discussion of some of the ramifications of the above system of equations and a discussion on gel-driven devices and on the control of such devices. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • In automobiles equipped with three-way catalytic converters (TWCCs) with no secondary air, the cause of corrosion of the exhaust system has been identified to beammonium sulfate formation. Ammonia is formed over three-way catalysts (TWCs) under reducing conditions and reacts with sulfur trioxide, formed during lean conditions and stored on high surface area Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, to form ammonium sulfate. The condensate solution of ammonium sulfate thus formed in the exhaust system reacts with the aluminized surface of the aluminized low-carbon steel, stripping it away and corroding the low carbon steel components. A coating composition has been developed from a newmore » phenolic-type epoxy resin and diaminodiphenyl sulfone. This coating has a softening temperature higher than 200{degrees}C and is thermally stable in air up to 375{degrees}C. The coating adheres well to aluminized low-carbon steel and provides excellent corrosion protection during aqueous ammonium sulfate exposure in bench tests and during aging in a stimulated exhaust for 15000 simulated miles. Field testing of this polymer-coated exhaust system is planned on prototype vehicles.« less