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Title: Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications

Abstract

Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.

Authors:
 [1]; ;  [2]
  1. Royal Netherlands Navy, The Hague (Netherlands). Directorate Material
  2. TNO Inst. of Environmental Sciences, Delft (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
382698
Report Number(s):
CONF-960112-
ISBN 0-7803-2994-5; TRN: IM9645%%249
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 11. annual battery conference on applications and advances, Long Beach, CA (United States), 9-12 Jan 1996; Other Information: PBD: 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of The eleventh annual battery conference on applications and advances: Proceedings; PB: 355 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; SODIUM-SULFUR BATTERIES; PERFORMANCE; SHIPS; PROPULSION SYSTEMS; SUBMARINES

Citation Formats

Posthumus, K.J.C.M., Schillemans, R.A.A., and Kluiters, E.C. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Posthumus, K.J.C.M., Schillemans, R.A.A., & Kluiters, E.C. Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications. United States.
Posthumus, K.J.C.M., Schillemans, R.A.A., and Kluiters, E.C. Fri . "Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_382698,
title = {Sodium-sulfur batteries for naval applications},
author = {Posthumus, K.J.C.M. and Schillemans, R.A.A. and Kluiters, E.C.},
abstractNote = {Since 1981 the Electrochemistry Group of TNO carries out a research program for the Royal Netherlands Navy (RNLN) with respect to batteries and fuel cells. Part of this Advanced Batteries program was the evaluation of possible alternatives for the nowadays applied batteries in conventional diesel electric submarines and ships. From this evaluation the high temperature sodium-sulfur battery proved to be the most promising candidate. To investigate the feasibility of the sodium-sulfur battery for naval application, calculations have been made on the expected performance within the two envisaged applications. To validated the calculation experimental testing was carried out on the submarine application. During operational missions the application hardly requires any supply of heating energy. Within the submarine application there is no need for installing a cooling system for the battery. Shock and vibration tests on a 10 kWh module did not lead to any measurable decrease in performance. Calculations show that the operational characteristics of a submarine equipped with sodium sulfur batteries outperform a submarine equipped with the traditional lead acid batteries. The short lifetime is the most important limitation in all applications.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1996},
month = {Fri Nov 01 00:00:00 EST 1996}
}

Conference:
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  • A development status evaluation is presented for the USAF's various efforts to advance sodium-sulfur battery technology as a basis for GEO and LEO satellite energy storage systems. These efforts encompass the High Energy Density Rechargeable Battery program, the LEO Sodium-Sulfur Cell Development program, the Improved Sodium-Sulfur Electrolyte program, and the Lightweight Aerospace Battery (LAB) program. An especially taxing requirement for batteries of this type is the substantial number of charge/discharge cycles typical of LEO satellite applications. The LAB program, which will extend to 1993, is intended to develop a bipolar, flat-plate sodium-sulfur satellite battery with 7-10 year service life inmore » LEO and 15 years in GEO.« less
  • Eleven groups of from 24 to 64 cells were interconnected in parallel and operated as batteries. Data are reported for five representative batteries. Those comprised of Mark-IID cells proved to be fail-safe and maintainable: several groups were cooled to ambient after operating, refurbished, reheated, and operated again. 6 refs.
  • The Air Force is developing sodium-sulfur rechargeable batteries for satellite baseload power applications. This technology has been selected for development due to its high energy density and high energy efficiency. The major technical problem to overcome before these cells can be operationally used is the life of the battery cells. All previous tests of these cells, and thus all life data that exist, were based on terrestrial battery requirements such as electric vehicles and load leveling systems. The sodium-sulfur cell tests being conducted at Wright-Patterson AFB are simulating mid-altitude and geosynchronous orbits. The results of these tests so far aremore » very encouraging, with over 1300 cycles collected on the oldest cells and no failures due to cycling.« less
  • High-soda glasses in the Na/sub 2/O-ZrO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/-SiO/sub 2/ system were tested for low resistivity and stability in Na, Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, S, and Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/. The composition that was selected was: 42 (mol%) Na/sub 2/O, 8 Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, 5 ZrO/sub 2/, 45 SiO/sub 2/. Effects of tube diameter on specific power and energy were studied. 3 figs.
  • Safety issues and current transport (shipment and in-vehicle use) and environmental regulations applicable to sodium-sulfur batteries for electric vehicles are summarized, and an assessment technique is suggested for evaluating hazards relative to commonly accepted risks. It is found that shipment regulations do not directly apply to sodium-sulfur batteries. Disposal hazards need to be quantified and decommissioning procedures need to be developed to comply with the environmental regulations. The risk assessment could be used to help commercialize sodium-sulfur and other advanced batteries in electric vehicles. 18 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.