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Title: Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report

Abstract

This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality ratemore » above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.« less

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Environmental Lab., Vicksburg, MS (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
299929
Report Number(s):
AD-A-355464/XAB; WES/TR/EL-98-11
TRN: 99:002522
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Sep 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
13 HYDRO ENERGY; FISHES; DAMS; MIGRATION; HYDROELECTRIC POWER PLANTS; FISH PASSAGE FACILITIES; SOUTH CAROLINA; SANTEE RIVER; HABITAT; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

Citation Formats

Nestler, J.M., Schilt, C.R., and Jones, D.P. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
Nestler, J.M., Schilt, C.R., & Jones, D.P. Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report. United States.
Nestler, J.M., Schilt, C.R., and Jones, D.P. 1998. "Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_299929,
title = {Effects of pressure reductions in a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina, on mortality rates of juvenile American shad and blueback herring. Technical report},
author = {Nestler, J.M. and Schilt, C.R. and Jones, D.P.},
abstractNote = {This report presents results of studies to predict the mortality rate of juvenile blueback herring (Alosa aestivalis) and American shad (A. sapidissima) associated with reduced pressure as they pass downstream through a proposed siphon water lift system at St. Stephen Dam, South Carolina. The primary function of the siphon is to increase attracting flow to better guide upstream migrating adult herring of both species into the existing fish lift for upstream passage. The US Army Engineer District, Charleston, wishes to consider the siphon as an alternative bypass route through the dam for downstream migrating juvenile and adult herring. A pressure-reduction testing system that emulates some of the pressure characteristics of the siphon was used to determine the approximate percentage of juvenile fishes that could be reasonably expected to be killed passing through the reduced pressures anticipated for the siphon water lift system. The testing system could duplicate the range of pressure change anticipated for the siphon lift system but could not obtain pressures lower than 4.1 psi, whereas pressures for some design alternatives may approach the theoretical minimum pressure of 0.0 psi. Study results indicate that the mortality rate is probably about 20 percent. Power analysis indicates that mortality rate above 30 percent is unlikely. Conducting additional mortality studies is recommended to refine predicted mortality rates. Measures should be taken to prevent juvenile fish from entering the siphon lift system if excessive mortality rates are observed.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1998,
month = 9
}

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  • Immediate mortality of juvenile alosids, American shad Alosa sapidissima and blueback herring A. aestivalis, passed through the 17-MW Kaplan turbine at Holyoke Dam on the Connecticut River was estimated with mark-capture methods. Turbine-induced mortality was 62% at 16.5-MW generation, 82% at 12 MW, and 82% at 5.5 MW. The significantly lower mortality of fish at full power output is thought to be related to greater turbine efficiency. 15 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.
  • Species profiles are summaries of the literature on taxonomy, life history, and environmental requirements of coastal fishes and aquatic invertebrates. They are prepared to assist with impact assessment. The alewife ({ital Alosa pseudoharengus}) and blueback herring ({ital A. aestivalis}) are morphologically and ecologically similar anadromous species of clupeids. The blueback herring is common throughout the South Atlantic Region, but the alewife occurs primarily in North Carolina and northern parts of South Carolina. These species spawn in spring in freshwater or brackish, tidally influenced portions of coastal rivers. Blueback herring initially use freshwater habitats for nursery areas, and then migrate downrivermore » to brackish estuaries, where they overwinter prior to migrating to sea the following spring. Alewives use brackish water or tidal freshwater as nursery areas until they migrate to coastal waters in winter or the following spring. Landlocked populations of blueback herring occur in several southeastern reservoirs. Both species are ecologically important by serving as prey for many other fishes; they are economically important because they support commercial inshore and offshore fisheries. Little information is available on environmental factors that limit these species in the South Atlantic Region. Adults of both species have broad salinity tolerances, but blueback herring appear to require access to freshwater for successful reproduction. 76 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.« less
  • This report documents a model study of the St. Stephen Power Plant, located in Berkely County, South Carolina. A previous model study revealed that the fish lift at the powerhouse could be improved by providing auxiliary attraction flows to the fish entrances. An auxiliary attraction flow (AAF) system was proposed that uses a siphon to obtain the auxiliary attraction water from the reservoir. The model investigations reported herein address the flow conditions at the discharge end of the siphon; the hydraulic aspects of the siphon are not addressed. Three different models were used to evaluate flow conditions at the dischargemore » end of the AAF system. A 1:25-scale model of the St. Stephen powerhouse was used to improve the fish entrance conditions and to evaluate the outlet conditions for the initial AAF system. As the investigations progressed, the design of the siphon discharge system was modified to include downstream fish migration and debris passage.« less
  • The American shad (Alosa sapidissima) was the most valuable food fish on the Atlantic coast perior to the 1940's; but landings have declined drastically since that time, and sport fishing has become more important than commercial fishing in most rivers stocks still exist. The American shad is anadromous: adults congregate offshore in areas within the North Atlantic Bight during summer, move southward in coastal waters during fall and early winter, and move up rivers to spawn during late winter and spring. In rivers in the South Atlantic Region, the spawning run peaks during January and February, but can continue throughmore » April and May. Larval shad live in upriver areas and eat a variety of small invertebrates. Juveniles gradually move downriver and live estuaries, where they grow to about 100 mm in length and migrate to sea where they live 3-5 years before maturing. Most American shad return to their natal river to spawn; and in the South Altantic Bight, most adults die after spawning once. Development of eggs requires water temperatures of 14 to 20/sup 0/C, dissolved oxygen concentrations of at least 5 mg/l, and current velocities capable of buoying eggs during incubation. Downstream transport of the young and spawning migrations of adults can be adversely affected by excessive alteration of the river flow.« less
  • This is an Environmental Assessment (Assessment) (DOE/EA-0935) evaluating the Power Marketing Policy and Subsequent Contracts between Southeastern and its customers. The Assessment evaluates two alternatives and the no action alternative. The proposed action is to market the power and energy available in the Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina System during the next ten years, with new power sales contracts of ten-year durations, to the customers set forth in Appendix A of the Assessment. In addition to the proposed alternative, the Assessment evaluates the alternative of extending existing contracts under the current marketing policy.