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Title: Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium

Abstract

The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquidmore » metal embrittlement was observed.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Oak Ridge, TN
Sponsoring Org.:
USDOE Office of Fissile Materials Disposition (MD)
OSTI Identifier:
2952
Report Number(s):
ORNL/CP-100699
GA 01 02 01 4; ON: DE00002952
DOE Contract Number:  
AC05-96OR22464
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: OECD/NEA Workshop on Physics and Fuel Performance, Paris, France, Sept. 28-30, 1998
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
05 NUCLEAR FUELS; Mixed Oxide Fuels; Cladding; Zircaloy; Gallium; Corrosion; Mechanical Properties; Embrittlement

Citation Formats

DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, Strizak, J P, and Wilson, D F. Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium. United States: N. p., 1998. Web.
DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, Strizak, J P, & Wilson, D F. Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium. United States.
DiStefano, J R, King, J F, Manneschmidt, E T, Strizak, J P, and Wilson, D F. 1998. "Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium". United States. https://www.osti.gov/servlets/purl/2952.
@article{osti_2952,
title = {Behavior of Zircaloy Cladding in the Presence of Gallium},
author = {DiStefano, J R and King, J F and Manneschmidt, E T and Strizak, J P and Wilson, D F},
abstractNote = {The U.S. Department of Energy has established a dual-track approach to the disposition of plutonium arising from the dismantling of nuclear weapons. Both immobilization and reactor-based mixed-oxide (MOX) fuel technologies are being evaluated. The reactor-based MOX fuel option requires assessment of the potential impact of concentrations of gallium (on the order of 1 to 10 ppm), not present in conventional MOX fuel, on cladding material performance. An experimental program was designed to evaluate the performance of prototypic Zircaloy cladding materials against (1) liquid gallium, and (2) various concentrations of G~03. Three types of tests were performed: (1) corrosion, (2) liquid metal embrittlement, and (3) corrosion-mechanical. These tests were to determine corrosion mechanisms, thresholds for temperature and concentration of gallium that delineate behavioral regimes, and changes in the mechanical properties of Zircaloy. Results have generally been favorable for the use of weapons-grade (WG) MOX fhel. The Zircaloy cladding does react with gallium to form intermetallic compounds at >3000 C; however, this reaction is limited by the mass of gallium and is therefore not expected to be significant with a low level (parts per million) of gallium in the MOX fuel. Furthermore, no evidence for grain boundary penetration by gallium or liquid metal embrittlement was observed.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/2952}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {1998},
month = {9}
}

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