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Title: First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models

Abstract

The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.

Authors:
; ;
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Huntsville, AL (United States). George C. Marshall Space Flight Center
OSTI Identifier:
263868
Report Number(s):
N-96-24116; NASA-CP-3325; M-802; NAS-1.55:3325; NIPS-96-39735; CONF-9511233-
TRN: 9624136
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: 1995 NASA aerospace battery workshop, Huntsville, AL (United States), 28-30 Nov 1995; Other Information: PBD: Feb 1996; Related Information: Is Part Of The 1995 NASA Aerospace Battery Workshop; Brewer, J.C.; PB: 644 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; NICKEL-CADMIUM BATTERIES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS; NICKEL-HYDROGEN BATTERIES; ELECTRODES; SPACECRAFT POWER SUPPLIES

Citation Formats

Timmerman, P., Ratnakumar, B.V., and Distefano, S. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Timmerman, P., Ratnakumar, B.V., & Distefano, S. First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models. United States.
Timmerman, P., Ratnakumar, B.V., and Distefano, S. 1996. "First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_263868,
title = {First principles nickel-cadmium and nickel hydrogen spacecraft battery models},
author = {Timmerman, P. and Ratnakumar, B.V. and Distefano, S.},
abstractNote = {The principles of Nickel-Cadmium and Nickel-Hydrogen spacecraft battery models are discussed. The Ni-Cd battery model includes two phase positive electrode and its predictions are very close to actual data. But the Ni-H2 battery model predictions (without the two phase positive electrode) are unacceptable even though the model is operational. Both models run on UNIX and Macintosh computers.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 2
}

Conference:
Other availability
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  • In early 1992 several NASA Satellites experienced anomalies with their Nickel-Cadmium Batteries in flight. The batteries on both missions were manufactured in accordance to the NASA standard 50 Ah specification. The batteries on both missions had developed large half-battery voltage differentials (>100 mV) within the first year of operation. Eventually, this led to the removal of one battery off the CGRO power bus. During mid-1992 two other NASA missions were preparing for launch using batteries from the same design. After the removal of the CGRO battery and the launch of the other two missions many non-traditional methods of battery operationmore » were suggested. These methods were proposed for the purpose of battery management in order to prolong battery life. The four missions utilized many types of operational strategies, all having the goal of minimizing battery overcharge. These strategies were fairly new and their impact on the battery performance was unknown. Therefore, the NASA battery testbed was established at JPL. The Testbed is operated by computer hardware and software. It has the capability to handle up to three 22-cell 50 Amp-hour batteries in parallel while collecting data for every cell within the batteries. The testbed can be configured to handle any capacity batteries below the 40 ampere per battery current limit and 60 volt per battery voltage limit. The testbed provides 24 hour automated operation and can simulate almost any orbit profile. This paper describes the detail capabilities of the testbed. To date several orbit profiles have been implemented, the paper will also describe the orbit profiles and the cell/battery performance in response to these profiles.« less
  • Nickel-cadmium batteries, bipolar nickel-hydrogen batteries, and regenerative fuel cell storage subsystems were evaluated for use as the storage subsystem in a 37.5 kW power system for space station. Design requirements were set in order to establish a common baseline for comparison purposes. The storage subsystems were compared on the basis of effective energy density, round trip electrical efficiency, total subsystem weight and volume, and life.
  • The dependent pressure vessel (DPV) nickel-hydrogen (NiH{sub 2}) battery is being developed as a potential spacecraft battery design for both military and commercial satellites. The limitations of standard NiH{sub 2} individual pressure vessel (IPV) flight battery technology are primarily related to the internal cell design and the battery packaging issues associated with grouping multiple cylindrical cells. The DPV cell design offers higher energy density and reduced cost, while retaining the established IPV technology flight heritage and database. The advanced cell design offers a more efficient mechanical, electrical and thermal cell configuration and a reduced parts count. The geometry of themore » DPV cell promotes compact, minimum volume packaging and weight efficiency. The DPV battery design offers significant cost and weight savings advantages while providing minimal design risks.« less
  • Battery models based on first principles have been under development for the last five to ten years. More recently, the appearance of faster and more sophisticated computational techniques, has allowed significant advances in the field. The usual approach consists of selecting the critical physicochemical phenomena of the given system (chemistry, mass transfer, charge transfer, etc.), setting up the problem as a set of coupled differential equations and obtaining numerical solutions. This approach was successfully implemented for the Pb-Acid system and subsequently for the NiCd system, at the cell level, by Prof. Ralph White of Texas A and M University. Thismore » NiCd cell model served as the basis of the NiCd Aerospace Battery model developed at JPL and reported at previous IECEC meetings. At this time several aerospace battery models using the same approach are under development at JPL. The recent models are based on NiH2 and NiMH chemistries. The current set of models uses a simplified treatment of the electrodes, this treatment assumes planar (non porous) electrode geometry. The resulting models have very modest computational requirements, allowing them to operate on personal computers. Results of performance predictions and computational requirements for the new models are discussed.« less