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Title: Solvent alternatives guide

Abstract

It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Research Triangle Inst., Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
260361
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Advanced Materials and Processes; Journal Volume: 149; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: PBD: Jun 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
32 ENERGY CONSERVATION, CONSUMPTION, AND UTILIZATION; 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; MACHINE PARTS; CLEANING; ORGANIC SOLVENTS; RECOMMENDATIONS; EXPERT SYSTEMS; ENVIRONMENT; COMPUTERS; SAFETY; CHEMICAL PROPERTIES; CONTAMINATION; EROSION; COMPATIBILITY; INTERNET; INFORMATION DISSEMINATION; COMPUTER NETWORKS; MATERIAL SUBSTITUTION; AIR POLLUTION ABATEMENT

Citation Formats

Elion, J.M., Monroe, K.R., and Hill, E.A.. Solvent alternatives guide. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Elion, J.M., Monroe, K.R., & Hill, E.A.. Solvent alternatives guide. United States.
Elion, J.M., Monroe, K.R., and Hill, E.A.. 1996. "Solvent alternatives guide". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_260361,
title = {Solvent alternatives guide},
author = {Elion, J.M. and Monroe, K.R. and Hill, E.A.},
abstractNote = {It is no longer legal to manufacture or import chlorofluorocarbon 113 or methyl chloroform solvents, and companies that currently clean their parts with either material are now required to implement environmentally safe substitutes. To help find alternative methods, Research Triangle Institute`s Surface Cleaning Technology Program has designed a Solvent Alternatives Guide (SAGE), an online tool that enables access to practical information and recommendations for acceptable solvents. Developed in partnership with the US Environmental Protection Agency, SAGE is available free of charge on the Internet`s World Wide Web.},
doi = {},
journal = {Advanced Materials and Processes},
number = 6,
volume = 149,
place = {United States},
year = 1996,
month = 6
}
  • This paper examines the use of selected solvents in degreasing, cold cleaning and spot cleaning applications in the aerospace industry, with emphasis on Federal facility operations. Research referenced in this paper is drawn from aerospace industry participants and from research conducted under the STrategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP), as well as EPA`s Waste Reduction Evaluations At Federal Sites (WREAFS) program. SERDP is a cooperative effort between DoD, DOE and EPA to develop environmental solutions that enhance mission readiness in defense operations. WREAFS, founded in 1988, is an EPA-backed program that works with individual military bases, research centers andmore » Federal facilities to promote pollution prevention opportunities and advance technologies to reduce environmental impacts while enhancing efficiency in Federal operations. With the increasing regulatory pressure preceded by the Clean Air Act, Montreal Protocols and various Executive orders, the use of certain highly effective, but environmentally harmful solvents has been restricted and will likely be further limited in the future. In the aerospace industry, primary solvents are also found on EPA`s 33/50 list-often referred to as the {open_quotes}EPA 17{close_quotes} list-of hazardous chemicals identified for reductions. With the added concerns of customer demand, market forces and costs, participants in both the private an public sector components of the aerospace industry and operations are moving to find replacements for the targeted chemicals. Various strategies are being considered, both chemical and mechanical in nature. The purpose of this paper will be to select some of the primary solvents and evaluate promising alternative chemicals and cleaning operations currently available. It will also provide a briefing on some alternatives currently being evaluated at Federal facilities. 15 refs.« less
  • Hardly a day goes by when there is not an announcement of a product developed to replace substances that deplete the ozone or create smog. In real time, the solvents market is being transformed. What was once a commodities business, dominated by a handful of chlorinated and hydrocarbon compounds, is an uncharted niche for hundreds of specialized products. Though the alternatives are diverse--from alcohols to solvent emulsions, making inroads with customers is an uphill battle. Few products match the all-around performance and price of their predecessors, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane, one of the most versatile and widely used solvents. For aqueousmore » systems especially, the competition is fierce, and could intensify should some old foes make a comeback in solvents. Industry observers point to the US Environmental Protection Agency`s decision to exempt acetone from regulation as a volatile organic compound (VOC). To date, oxygenated solvents, such as alcohols, alcohol esters and alcohol ethers are the biggest beneficiaries of the move away from hazardous solvents, say market analysts at The Freedonia Group, Inc. (Cleveland, Ohio). The oxygenates, which are nonchlorinated and contain low levels of VOCs, work well in water-based coatings.« less
  • Effective alternatives to nitric acid stripping in the Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) solvent have been demonstrated in this work. The CSSX solvent employs calix[4]arene-bis(tert-octylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BOBCalixC6) as the cesium extractant in a modified alkane diluent for decontamination of alkaline high-level wastes. Results reported in this paper support the idea that replacement of the nitrate anion by a much more hydrophilic anion like borate can substantially lower cesium distribution ratios on stripping. Without any other change in the CSSX flowsheet, however, the use of a boric acid stripping solution in place of the 1 mM nitric acid solution used in the CSSXmore » process marginally, though perhaps still usefully, improves stripping. The less-than-expected improvement was explained by the carryover of nitrate from scrubbing into stripping. Accordingly, more effective stripping is obtained after a scrub of the solvent with 0.1 M sodium hydroxide. Functional alternatives to boric acid include sodium bicarbonate or cesium hydroxide as strip solutions. Profound stripping improvement is achieved when trioctylamine, one of the components of the CSSX solvent, is replaced with a commercial guanidine reagent (LIX 79). The more basic guanidine affords greater latitude in selection of aqueous conditions in that it protonates even at mildly alkaline pH values. Under process-relevant conditions, cesium distributions on stripping are decreased on the order of 100-fold compared with current CSSX performance. The extraction properties of the solvent were preserved unchanged over three successive extract-scrub-strip cycles. From the point of view of compatibility with downstream processing, boric acid represents an attractive stripping agent, as it is also a potentially ideal feed for borosilicate vitrification of the separated 137Cs product stream. Possibilities for use of these results toward a dramatically better next-generation CSSX process, possibly one employing the more soluble cesium extractant calix[4]arene-bis(2 ethylhexylbenzo-18-crown-6) (BEHBCalixC6) are discussed.« less
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