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Title: Fly ash carbon burn-out at TVA`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site specific application study. Final report

Abstract

Many power plants, particularly after conversion to low-NOx burners, produce fly ash that is too high in carbon content to be successfully marketed as a concrete admixture. Fly ash beneficiation using Carbon Burn-Out (CBO) technology offers the opportunity to market fly ash that was previously landfilled. This site application study of beneficiating pulverized coal boiler fly ash at Tennessee Valley Authority`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations indicates this process is a cost effective solution for decreasing solid waste disposal, increasing landfill life, improving boiler heat rate, and generating a positive revenue stream. Results indicate that the Colbert Station has the fly ash market, site integration potential, and positive economics to support construction and operation of a CBO plant with an annual production rate of approximately 150,000 tons. As the market for fly ash increases, this capacity may be expanded to handle the majority of fly ash generated at Colbert. Results of the Shawnee Station analysis indicate that site integration constraints combined with the lack of near term local area fly ash market growth do not support construction and operation of a CBO plant. CBO commercial process design work in developing a generic commercial design resulted in a major improvement to themore » heat recovery portion of the process. This development resulted in the elimination of five major equipment items, with a corresponding reduction in plant complexity and costs. The design change is now considered part of the commercial offering.« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Progress Materials, Inc., St. Petersburg, FL (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Progress Materials, Inc., St. Petersburg, FL (United States)
Sponsoring Org.:
Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
257375
Report Number(s):
EPRI-TR-105825
TRN: AHC29615%%72
Resource Type:
Technical Report
Resource Relation:
Other Information: PBD: Apr 1996
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
20 FOSSIL-FUELED POWER PLANTS; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; SHAWNEE STEAM PLANT; WASTE MANAGEMENT; FOSSIL-FUEL POWER PLANTS; FLY ASH; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; FLUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTION; WASTE PROCESSING PLANTS; ECONOMIC ANALYSIS; CARBON; REMOVAL; CONCRETES; PERFORMANCE; CONCENTRATION RATIO; HEAT RECOVERY; DATA

Citation Formats

Cochran, J.W., and Kirkconnell, S.F. Fly ash carbon burn-out at TVA`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site specific application study. Final report. United States: N. p., 1996. Web.
Cochran, J.W., & Kirkconnell, S.F. Fly ash carbon burn-out at TVA`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site specific application study. Final report. United States.
Cochran, J.W., and Kirkconnell, S.F. Mon . "Fly ash carbon burn-out at TVA`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site specific application study. Final report". United States. doi:.
@article{osti_257375,
title = {Fly ash carbon burn-out at TVA`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations: Site specific application study. Final report},
author = {Cochran, J.W. and Kirkconnell, S.F.},
abstractNote = {Many power plants, particularly after conversion to low-NOx burners, produce fly ash that is too high in carbon content to be successfully marketed as a concrete admixture. Fly ash beneficiation using Carbon Burn-Out (CBO) technology offers the opportunity to market fly ash that was previously landfilled. This site application study of beneficiating pulverized coal boiler fly ash at Tennessee Valley Authority`s Colbert and Shawnee Stations indicates this process is a cost effective solution for decreasing solid waste disposal, increasing landfill life, improving boiler heat rate, and generating a positive revenue stream. Results indicate that the Colbert Station has the fly ash market, site integration potential, and positive economics to support construction and operation of a CBO plant with an annual production rate of approximately 150,000 tons. As the market for fly ash increases, this capacity may be expanded to handle the majority of fly ash generated at Colbert. Results of the Shawnee Station analysis indicate that site integration constraints combined with the lack of near term local area fly ash market growth do not support construction and operation of a CBO plant. CBO commercial process design work in developing a generic commercial design resulted in a major improvement to the heat recovery portion of the process. This development resulted in the elimination of five major equipment items, with a corresponding reduction in plant complexity and costs. The design change is now considered part of the commercial offering.},
doi = {},
journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {Mon Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1996},
month = {Mon Apr 01 00:00:00 EST 1996}
}

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  • The Carbon Burn-Out process beneficiates fly ash by reducing its carbon content, thus producing a byproduct with commercial potential as a concrete admixture while recovering heat liberated from the carbon in the fly ash. A one ton per hour Fly Ash Carbon Burn-Out pilot plant was designed and constructed in Tampa, Florida to demonstrate the process. Processing occurs in a unique fluidized bed containing only the fly ash particles. To date over 700 tons of fly ash from 11 different power plants have been processed at the plant. Feedstock fly ash carbon content varied from approximately 5 to 18%. Themore » processed fly ash has carbon content in the 1 to 3% range. Test show that the low carbon fly ash product performs well in concrete as a cement extender or admixture.« less
  • This report contains the results of a four-year test program to evaluate the high-dust selective catalytic reduction (SCR) process operating on a high-sulfur coal-fired boiler. The project was sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and testing was conducted on a pilot unit installed at TVA`s National Center for Emissions Research located at the Shawnee Power Plant near Paducah, Kentucky. The catalysts used in pilot unit were supplied by Kawasaki Heavy Industries, LTD. (represented in the US by Joy Environmental Technologies) and the Norton Chemical Process Products Corporation. The primary objectives of themore » test program were to identify operating issues and establish the feasibility of SCR on high-sulfur US coals. Unit 9 at Shawnee burned coals with sulfur concentrations between 2.5 and 5.0 percent, and the catalysts in the pilot unit were exposed to the high-sulfur flue gas for up to 22,000 hours. During this period, tests were conducted to monitor changes in NO. removal and residual ammonia (slip) with increasing exposure time. Additional testing, including measurements of gas-phase SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}, Was conducted to determine SO{sub 2} oxidation rates over the catalysts and monitor other pilot unit performance characteristics. Catalyst coupon samples were periodically removed from the reactor and analyzed by the suppliers for catalytic activity and for other chemical and physical properties. The test program represented a severe test for SCR. Test results indicate that the higher sulfur content of coals tested during the program contributed to catalyst channel plugging, accelerated catalyst deactivation, and a greater potential for balance-of-plant operating problems. Even so, the results demonstrated that SCR is feasible for boilers burning higher-sulfur coal, as long as these risks are considered during system design.« less
  • EPRI sponsored development of a Fly Ash Carbon Burn-Out process for beneficiating high carbon ash. Initial development aimed at reducing carbon from fly ash from pulverized coal fire boilers. this report describes the application of the Carbon Burn-Out process to high carbon rice hull ash. The non-combustible fraction of rice hull ash is high in silica and has a high specific surface area. If the carbon could be economically removed from this ash without converting the silica to a crystalline form, these characteristics might make the material competitive with silica fume as a valuable concrete admixture. Tests on rice hullmore » ash at the Carbon Burn-Out pilot plant in Tampa, Florida showed that the carbon content of such ash could be significantly reduced and that little, if any, crystalline silica is produced during combustion. Concrete tests utilizing the processed rice hull ash wet ground to 6 {mu}m average size indicated that the beneficiated ash would be a viable competitor to commercially valuable silica fume.« less
  • Tests were conducted on train 100 (spray tower) at the Shawnee Test Facility between December 26, 1980, and May 30, 1981. Objectives were, respectively, to demonstrate the ability to operate a limestone scrubber on flue gas from high-sulfur coal using adipic acid slurry additive and forced oxidation long term without scale buildup at >90% SO/sub 2/ removal; to obtain factorial test data on a limestone spray tower system using forced oxidation and adipic acid; to evaluate the effect of changing spray header height and direction in a spray tower on SO/sub 2/ removal; and to determine if sodium thiosulfate ismore » effective as a slurry additive to inhibit sulfate scale buildup. Operating conditions were determined wherein acceptable SO/sub 2/ removal (90 percent minimum) could be obtained over a three month period using limestone and adipic acid with forced oxidation. Quantitative relationships between spray header height, spray direction, and SO/sub 2/ removal were obtained for a spray tower having multi-level spray headers. Sodium thiosulfate added at a rate to maintain a 250 ppM level in the scrubber slurry under specific operating conditions was found to inhibit crystallization of sulfate from solution and to remove sulfate scale buildup already in place.« less
  • This study had the following objectives: (1) to determine if fly ash-derived contaminants have affected surface and groundwater quality in the surficial aquifer at the Vienna site; (2) to determine if the aquatic and terrestrial biota populating the disposal site and the surrounding area have been affected by fly ash-derived contaminants; and (3) to assess the implications of the above-mentioned effects on the health of the surrounding human population. Ash samples for this study were analyzed by two methods: (1) acid digestion for total element content; and (2) leached according to the U.S. EPA EP Toxicity determination procedures. Field reconnaissance,more » fall season sampling, groundwater and laboratory analyses were conducted. Conclusions of this problem definition phase of the study include: (1) the fly ash deposit contains As, Cr, and Se; (2) the shallow groundwater system shows local contamination by sulfates, and some detectable heavy metals slightly above PDWS; (3) local contamination in the shallow groundwater system at the site has no significant effect on surface water quality leaving the site; (4) the fly ash now constitutes no significant threat to groundwater quality; (5) biological organisms sampled at the disposal site may be affected by localized sources of trace metal contamination.« less