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Title: Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Tungsten

Abstract

Nuclear fusion is considered as the most promising sustainable energy source. If achieved, it could provide electricity to the mankind for millions of years. During the reaction, the fusion ash is continuously removed from the magnetic gap, the divertor region, and the divertor facing component is subjected to intense plasma bombardment. It is proposed to use tungsten as the divertor facing material, because it has low physical sputtering yield and superior thermomechanical properties. However, the high mobility of hydrogen in tungsten and the high bombardment flux bring the hydrogen isotopes deep into the tungsten tile. The presence of hydrogen in tungsten tends to weaken the gram boundaries and produce surface blistering. The ejection of tungsten particulates into the plasma core will cool the reaction and cease the fusion reactions. Therefore, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. The KMC method is a stochastic computer simulation to predict the time evolution of a certain system. Typically, at a given time, the system will evolve through a few possible paths with known probabilities. In each step, the KMC method analyzes the entire system and randomly determines the system evolving events based on all transitionmore » rates of all possible events and advance the physical time. This process is repeated till the simulation of the entire physical time is completed. In previous work, the authors developed a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm and program to simulate hydrogen diffusion process on tungsten reconstructed surface. In this article, this KMC method is extended to model the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. The diffusion coefficients are calculated and fitted to the Arrhenius equation. The result matches the experiment measurement very well. KMC diffusion simulation needs the locations of the hydrogen trapping sites, diffusion paths and the corresponding diffusion energy barriers. The hydrogen interstitial sites in tungsten crystal have been thoroughly studied by density function theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD). Johnson and Carter used DFT to determine the preferred location of the hydrogen interstitial sites m tungsten crystal, which are the tetrahedral sites (T-sites) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice surfaces. All T-sites are located on the surfaces of a lattice cell. There are four T-sites per surface and twelve T-sites per lattice cell. The hydrogen atoms diffuse by traveling from one T-site to one of its nearest four T-site neighbors. Thus, each T-site is surrounded by two neighbors on the same surface, and one neighbor on each of the two adjacent surfaces perpendicular to the surface holding the center T-site. The diffusion barrier between two neighboring T-sites was calculated to be 0.38 eV. Knowing the diffusion path, energy barrier, and the crystal structure, the KMC simulation is readily to be performed. Based on other researchers' DFT calculations, the hydrogen stable interstitial site in tungsten bulk is determined as the tetrahedral site on the surface of the bee lattice. Each T-site has 4 neighbors and the energy barrier between two adjacent T-sites are estimated to be 0.38 eV. Based on those facts and the KMC theory, a MATLAB program is developed to model the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. In the MATLAB program, substrate temperature, hydrogen concentration, physical time to be simulated, and the number of cycles are all customizable. To compare the KMC determined diffusion coefficients with experiment results in the literature, the simulations are performed for temperature 300 K - 2500 K and low hydrogen concentration (0.1%), mimicking the experiment condition. The calculated diffusion coefficients match the reference values measured by the experiment under low hydrogen concentration condition. The results are also fitted to the Arrhenius equation. The pre-exponential factor and the average activation energy in Arrhenius equation are obtained. The good agreement between simulation and experiment proves that the developed KMC algorithm truly reflect the well-established theory of interstitial hydrogens in tungsten. The developed program could easily be used to model the diffusion process and predict the diffusion coefficients under other concentrations and temperatures. This work is part of the ongoing development of hydrogen diffusion in tungsten integrating surface diffusion (previous work), bulk diffusion (this work), and adsorption/desorption on surface (future work)« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Texas A and M University-Kingsville, 700 University Blvd., MSC 191, Kingsville, TX, 78363 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22991889
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Transactions of the American Nuclear Society
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 114; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Annual Meeting of the American Nuclear Society, New Orleans, LA (United States), 12-16 Jun 2016; Other Information: Country of input: France; 8 refs.; Available from American Nuclear Society - ANS, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60526 United States; Journal ID: ISSN 0003-018X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
70 PLASMA PHYSICS AND FUSION TECHNOLOGY; BCC LATTICES; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; DIVERTORS; ENERGY SOURCES; HEAVY ION FUSION REACTIONS; HYDROGEN ISOTOPES; INTERSTITIALS; MOLECULAR DYNAMICS METHOD; MONTE CARLO METHOD; THERMONUCLEAR REACTIONS; TUNGSTEN

Citation Formats

Yang, Xue, and Oyeniyi, Wasiu O. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Tungsten. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Yang, Xue, & Oyeniyi, Wasiu O. Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Tungsten. United States.
Yang, Xue, and Oyeniyi, Wasiu O. 2016. "Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Tungsten". United States.
@article{osti_22991889,
title = {Kinetic Monte Carlo Simulation of Hydrogen Diffusion in Tungsten},
author = {Yang, Xue and Oyeniyi, Wasiu O.},
abstractNote = {Nuclear fusion is considered as the most promising sustainable energy source. If achieved, it could provide electricity to the mankind for millions of years. During the reaction, the fusion ash is continuously removed from the magnetic gap, the divertor region, and the divertor facing component is subjected to intense plasma bombardment. It is proposed to use tungsten as the divertor facing material, because it has low physical sputtering yield and superior thermomechanical properties. However, the high mobility of hydrogen in tungsten and the high bombardment flux bring the hydrogen isotopes deep into the tungsten tile. The presence of hydrogen in tungsten tends to weaken the gram boundaries and produce surface blistering. The ejection of tungsten particulates into the plasma core will cool the reaction and cease the fusion reactions. Therefore, it is important to have a detailed understanding of the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. The KMC method is a stochastic computer simulation to predict the time evolution of a certain system. Typically, at a given time, the system will evolve through a few possible paths with known probabilities. In each step, the KMC method analyzes the entire system and randomly determines the system evolving events based on all transition rates of all possible events and advance the physical time. This process is repeated till the simulation of the entire physical time is completed. In previous work, the authors developed a kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) algorithm and program to simulate hydrogen diffusion process on tungsten reconstructed surface. In this article, this KMC method is extended to model the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. The diffusion coefficients are calculated and fitted to the Arrhenius equation. The result matches the experiment measurement very well. KMC diffusion simulation needs the locations of the hydrogen trapping sites, diffusion paths and the corresponding diffusion energy barriers. The hydrogen interstitial sites in tungsten crystal have been thoroughly studied by density function theory (DFT) and molecular dynamics (MD). Johnson and Carter used DFT to determine the preferred location of the hydrogen interstitial sites m tungsten crystal, which are the tetrahedral sites (T-sites) in body-centered-cubic (bcc) lattice surfaces. All T-sites are located on the surfaces of a lattice cell. There are four T-sites per surface and twelve T-sites per lattice cell. The hydrogen atoms diffuse by traveling from one T-site to one of its nearest four T-site neighbors. Thus, each T-site is surrounded by two neighbors on the same surface, and one neighbor on each of the two adjacent surfaces perpendicular to the surface holding the center T-site. The diffusion barrier between two neighboring T-sites was calculated to be 0.38 eV. Knowing the diffusion path, energy barrier, and the crystal structure, the KMC simulation is readily to be performed. Based on other researchers' DFT calculations, the hydrogen stable interstitial site in tungsten bulk is determined as the tetrahedral site on the surface of the bee lattice. Each T-site has 4 neighbors and the energy barrier between two adjacent T-sites are estimated to be 0.38 eV. Based on those facts and the KMC theory, a MATLAB program is developed to model the hydrogen diffusion in tungsten bulk. In the MATLAB program, substrate temperature, hydrogen concentration, physical time to be simulated, and the number of cycles are all customizable. To compare the KMC determined diffusion coefficients with experiment results in the literature, the simulations are performed for temperature 300 K - 2500 K and low hydrogen concentration (0.1%), mimicking the experiment condition. The calculated diffusion coefficients match the reference values measured by the experiment under low hydrogen concentration condition. The results are also fitted to the Arrhenius equation. The pre-exponential factor and the average activation energy in Arrhenius equation are obtained. The good agreement between simulation and experiment proves that the developed KMC algorithm truly reflect the well-established theory of interstitial hydrogens in tungsten. The developed program could easily be used to model the diffusion process and predict the diffusion coefficients under other concentrations and temperatures. This work is part of the ongoing development of hydrogen diffusion in tungsten integrating surface diffusion (previous work), bulk diffusion (this work), and adsorption/desorption on surface (future work)},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22991889}, journal = {Transactions of the American Nuclear Society},
issn = {0003-018X},
number = 1,
volume = 114,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {6}
}