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Title: X-Ray Diffraction of Slag-Based Sodium Salt Waste Forms - 15513

Abstract

Cementitious materials are used to solidify and stabilize aqueous based radioactive waste containing sodium salts. The types and proportions of cementitious ingredients used to treat aqueous radioactive waste streams containing sodium salts depend on the performance objectives for the waste forms and the compositions of the waste streams. This paper documents sample preparation and x-ray diffraction results for a series of materials made with water or highly alkaline sodium salt simulated waste water and cementitious binders. The objective of this study was to: 1) generate a base line for the evolution of the waste form as a function of time and conditions, 2) design new binders based on mineralogy of the binder, 3) understand and predict anion and cation leaching behavior of contaminants of concern, and 4) predict performance of the waste forms for which phase solubility and thermodynamic data are available. Characterization of the mineralogy is also important for understanding the buffering effects that the waste form has on infiltrating water / leachates. In summary, mixtures of Type II portland cement, Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and carbon burn-out (CBO) Class F Fly ash which were hydrated with water contained hydrated phase assemblages typical of thosemore » reported in the literature. The calcium silicate hydrate phase assemblage in samples hydrated with the alkaline 4.4 M sodium salt simulated waste solution was found to be a function of the (CaO + MgO) / (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ratio of the samples characterized. No significant differences were detected in samples cured 2 months and 14 months in sealed containers at ambient indoor temperatures. Slag and a blend of slag and cement hydrated with caustic 4.4 M Na salt solution resulted in the most crystalline matrix. In addition to poorly ordered C-S-H, these samples contained fairly well ordered C-S-H I (a precursor of 14A tobermorite) and 11 A Al-substituted tobermorite. These crystalline C-S-H phases did not form or were present in only trace amounts in slag blends containing about 45 to 62 mass percent fly ash. These slag-Class F fly ash blends had a higher silica plus alumina content relative to lime and magnesia than the blends that produced C-S-H I and Al-substituted tobermorite. The calcium silicate binder in the 10:45:45 mixture of cement: slag: fly ash was made up of poorly ordered C-S-H. The sample cured for 14 months may contain a small amount of the more crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases. Layered double hydroxides in the hydrotalcite (magnesium-aluminum carbonate hydroxide) and hydrocalumite / AFm phases (calcium aluminum hydroxide) were present in mixtures containing slag. The specific phase(s) were not identified because these phases form solid solutions and have a considerable amount of overlap in their x-ray patterns. Sodium nitrate was the only sodium salt phase identified in x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples hydrated with salt solution. Drying during x-ray diffraction sample preparation may have resulted in precipitation of the sodium nitrate or it may have been present in the samples prior to x-ray sample preparation. Sodium sulfate, aluminate, and carbonate may have been incorporated in the structures of the layered double hydroxide (AFm) type phases. These mixed metal layered double hydroxides make up an important fraction of the matrix in the slag containing blends hydrated with caustic salt solution. They are among the few oxide-based phases that exhibit substantial, permanent anion exchange capacity [Kirkpatrick, et al. 1999, Plamer, et al., 2009, and Zhang and Reardon, 2003]. They also contribute to the structural properties of cementitious matrices [Taylor, 1997]. (authors)« less

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
WM Symposia, Inc., PO Box 27646, 85285-7646 Tempe, AZ (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22824400
Report Number(s):
INIS-US-19-WM-15513
TRN: US19V0973069446
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: WM2015: Annual Waste Management Symposium, Phoenix, AZ (United States), 15-19 Mar 2015; Other Information: Country of input: France; 21 refs.; available online at: http://archive.wmsym.org/2015/index.html
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ALUMINIUM HYDROXIDES; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; BLAST FURNACES; CALCIUM OXIDES; CALCIUM SILICATES; CARBON; CARBONATES; CONTAINERS; DRYING; FLY ASH; HYDRATES; ION EXCHANGE; LEACHATES; LEACHING; MAGNESIUM OXIDES; MINERALOGY; PORTLAND CEMENT; SILICON OXIDES; SIMULATION; SODIUM NITRATES; SODIUM SULFATES; SOLID SOLUTIONS; THERMODYNAMICS; TIME DEPENDENCE; TRACE AMOUNTS; WASTE FORMS; WASTE WATER; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Langton, C. A., and Missimer, D. M. X-Ray Diffraction of Slag-Based Sodium Salt Waste Forms - 15513. United States: N. p., 2015. Web.
Langton, C. A., & Missimer, D. M. X-Ray Diffraction of Slag-Based Sodium Salt Waste Forms - 15513. United States.
Langton, C. A., and Missimer, D. M. Wed . "X-Ray Diffraction of Slag-Based Sodium Salt Waste Forms - 15513". United States.
@article{osti_22824400,
title = {X-Ray Diffraction of Slag-Based Sodium Salt Waste Forms - 15513},
author = {Langton, C. A. and Missimer, D. M.},
abstractNote = {Cementitious materials are used to solidify and stabilize aqueous based radioactive waste containing sodium salts. The types and proportions of cementitious ingredients used to treat aqueous radioactive waste streams containing sodium salts depend on the performance objectives for the waste forms and the compositions of the waste streams. This paper documents sample preparation and x-ray diffraction results for a series of materials made with water or highly alkaline sodium salt simulated waste water and cementitious binders. The objective of this study was to: 1) generate a base line for the evolution of the waste form as a function of time and conditions, 2) design new binders based on mineralogy of the binder, 3) understand and predict anion and cation leaching behavior of contaminants of concern, and 4) predict performance of the waste forms for which phase solubility and thermodynamic data are available. Characterization of the mineralogy is also important for understanding the buffering effects that the waste form has on infiltrating water / leachates. In summary, mixtures of Type II portland cement, Grade 100 ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) and carbon burn-out (CBO) Class F Fly ash which were hydrated with water contained hydrated phase assemblages typical of those reported in the literature. The calcium silicate hydrate phase assemblage in samples hydrated with the alkaline 4.4 M sodium salt simulated waste solution was found to be a function of the (CaO + MgO) / (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) ratio of the samples characterized. No significant differences were detected in samples cured 2 months and 14 months in sealed containers at ambient indoor temperatures. Slag and a blend of slag and cement hydrated with caustic 4.4 M Na salt solution resulted in the most crystalline matrix. In addition to poorly ordered C-S-H, these samples contained fairly well ordered C-S-H I (a precursor of 14A tobermorite) and 11 A Al-substituted tobermorite. These crystalline C-S-H phases did not form or were present in only trace amounts in slag blends containing about 45 to 62 mass percent fly ash. These slag-Class F fly ash blends had a higher silica plus alumina content relative to lime and magnesia than the blends that produced C-S-H I and Al-substituted tobermorite. The calcium silicate binder in the 10:45:45 mixture of cement: slag: fly ash was made up of poorly ordered C-S-H. The sample cured for 14 months may contain a small amount of the more crystalline calcium silicate hydrate phases. Layered double hydroxides in the hydrotalcite (magnesium-aluminum carbonate hydroxide) and hydrocalumite / AFm phases (calcium aluminum hydroxide) were present in mixtures containing slag. The specific phase(s) were not identified because these phases form solid solutions and have a considerable amount of overlap in their x-ray patterns. Sodium nitrate was the only sodium salt phase identified in x-ray diffraction patterns of the samples hydrated with salt solution. Drying during x-ray diffraction sample preparation may have resulted in precipitation of the sodium nitrate or it may have been present in the samples prior to x-ray sample preparation. Sodium sulfate, aluminate, and carbonate may have been incorporated in the structures of the layered double hydroxide (AFm) type phases. These mixed metal layered double hydroxides make up an important fraction of the matrix in the slag containing blends hydrated with caustic salt solution. They are among the few oxide-based phases that exhibit substantial, permanent anion exchange capacity [Kirkpatrick, et al. 1999, Plamer, et al., 2009, and Zhang and Reardon, 2003]. They also contribute to the structural properties of cementitious matrices [Taylor, 1997]. (authors)},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22824400}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {7}
}

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