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Title: Review: The distribution, flow, and quality of Grand Canyon Springs, Arizona (USA)

Abstract

An understanding of the hydrogeology of Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA) in northern Arizona, USA, is critical for future resource protection. The ~750 springs in GRCA provide both perennial and seasonal flow to numerous desert streams, drinking water to wildlife and visitors in an otherwise arid environment, and habitat for rare, endemic and threatened species. Spring behavior and flow patterns represent local and regional patterns in aquifer recharge, reflect the geologic structure and stratigraphy, and are indicators of the overall biotic health of the canyon. These springs, however, are subject to pressures from water supply development, changes in recharge from forest fires and other land management activities, and potential contamination. Roaring Springs is the sole water supply for residents and visitors (>6 million/year), and all springs support valuable riparian habitats with very high species diversity. Most springs flow from the karstic Redwall-Muav aquifer and show seasonal patterns in flow and water chemistry indicative of variable aquifer porosities, including conduit flow. They have Ca/Mg-HCO{sub 3} dominated chemistry and trace elements consistent with nearby deep wells drilled into the Redwall-Muav aquifer. Tracer techniques and water-age dating indicate a wide range of residence times for many springs, supporting the concept of multiple porosities.more » A perched aquifer produces small springs which issue from the contacts between sandstone and shale units, with variable groundwater residence times. Stable isotope data suggest both an elevational and seasonal difference in recharge between North and South Rim springs. This review highlights the complex nature of the groundwater system.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Northern Arizona University, School of Earth Sciences and Environmental Sustainability (United States)
  2. University of Nevada, Department of Geoscience (United States)
  3. Science and Resource Management, Grand Canyon National Park (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22780877
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Hydrogeology Journal
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 26; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2018 Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature; Article Copyright (c) 2017 This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 1431-2174
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; 58 GEOSCIENCES; AQUIFERS; ARIZONA; CALCIUM; CONTAMINATION; DESERTS; DRILLS; DRINKING WATER; GEOLOGIC STRUCTURES; GROUND WATER; GROUNDWATER RECHARGE; HABITAT; HYDROCARBONS; HYDROLOGY; MAGNESIUM; POROSITY; SANDSTONES; SHALES; SPECIES DIVERSITY; STABLE ISOTOPES; STRATIGRAPHY; STREAMS; TRACE AMOUNTS; TRACER TECHNIQUES; WATER CHEMISTRY; WATER QUALITY; WATER SPRINGS; WATER SUPPLY; WILD ANIMALS

Citation Formats

Tobin, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwtobin80@gmail.com, Springer, Abraham E., Kreamer, David K., and Schenk, Edward. Review: The distribution, flow, and quality of Grand Canyon Springs, Arizona (USA). United States: N. p., 2018. Web. doi:10.1007/S10040-017-1688-8.
Tobin, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwtobin80@gmail.com, Springer, Abraham E., Kreamer, David K., & Schenk, Edward. Review: The distribution, flow, and quality of Grand Canyon Springs, Arizona (USA). United States. doi:10.1007/S10040-017-1688-8.
Tobin, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwtobin80@gmail.com, Springer, Abraham E., Kreamer, David K., and Schenk, Edward. Tue . "Review: The distribution, flow, and quality of Grand Canyon Springs, Arizona (USA)". United States. doi:10.1007/S10040-017-1688-8.
@article{osti_22780877,
title = {Review: The distribution, flow, and quality of Grand Canyon Springs, Arizona (USA)},
author = {Tobin, Benjamin W., E-mail: bwtobin80@gmail.com and Springer, Abraham E. and Kreamer, David K. and Schenk, Edward},
abstractNote = {An understanding of the hydrogeology of Grand Canyon National Park (GRCA) in northern Arizona, USA, is critical for future resource protection. The ~750 springs in GRCA provide both perennial and seasonal flow to numerous desert streams, drinking water to wildlife and visitors in an otherwise arid environment, and habitat for rare, endemic and threatened species. Spring behavior and flow patterns represent local and regional patterns in aquifer recharge, reflect the geologic structure and stratigraphy, and are indicators of the overall biotic health of the canyon. These springs, however, are subject to pressures from water supply development, changes in recharge from forest fires and other land management activities, and potential contamination. Roaring Springs is the sole water supply for residents and visitors (>6 million/year), and all springs support valuable riparian habitats with very high species diversity. Most springs flow from the karstic Redwall-Muav aquifer and show seasonal patterns in flow and water chemistry indicative of variable aquifer porosities, including conduit flow. They have Ca/Mg-HCO{sub 3} dominated chemistry and trace elements consistent with nearby deep wells drilled into the Redwall-Muav aquifer. Tracer techniques and water-age dating indicate a wide range of residence times for many springs, supporting the concept of multiple porosities. A perched aquifer produces small springs which issue from the contacts between sandstone and shale units, with variable groundwater residence times. Stable isotope data suggest both an elevational and seasonal difference in recharge between North and South Rim springs. This review highlights the complex nature of the groundwater system.},
doi = {10.1007/S10040-017-1688-8},
journal = {Hydrogeology Journal},
issn = {1431-2174},
number = 3,
volume = 26,
place = {United States},
year = {2018},
month = {5}
}