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Title: The PROMETRA program: plane strain tests on fresh and highly irradiated zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 fuel claddings

Abstract

In the framework of the PROMETRA program, clad hardening constitutive laws (stress-strain curves) have been already implemented in the SCANAIR code. These laws were derived from uniaxial hoop tensile tests performed on narrow machined ring samples. However, they do not reproduce the conditions of strain multi-axiality acting on cladding during a RIA (Reactivity-Initiated Accident) in a PWR. As a consequence, a new specimen called Plane Strain Tensile (PST) similar to the annular sample developed by Pennsylvania State University has been developed at CEA on a wider notched ring. It aims to accurately predict the cladding failure in more prototypical conditions, close to plane strain hoop tension in the middle of the gage section. This paper details the PST tests implementation and results in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. The development of this test has led also to the development of a technique to measure local deformations in the gage section of the PST specimen using 2-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Tests performed on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are analyzed relying of post-test examinations and finite element simulations. In the case of tests performed on irradiated Zry-4 and ZIRLOmore » at 280 and 350 Celsius degrees, the presence of a hydride rim favors the crack nucleation on the outer surface. In this case, rupture nucleation occurs preferentially in the vicinity of notches. Such tests are not representative of the rupture of a cladding subjected to plane strain loading. Nevertheless, they give a good representation of the initiation of rupture observed during RIA on irradiated cladding, resulting in a hydride damage. Zry-4 specimens tested at 480 Celsius degrees and M5TM at 280 and 350 C. degrees result in a ductile fracture nucleation in the center of the specimen. This rupture is prototypical of a ductile rupture of an irradiated specimen subjected to a plane strain loading. However, the nucleation on inner surface by shear at the mandrel contact is not prototypical of a clad rupture during the PCMI (Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction) phase of a RIA (membrane stresses in the clad thickness in RIA). An important lesson learned from this experimental approach is that the PST test is a particularly complex test, both in its implementation and interpretation.« less

Authors:
;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, IRSN/PSN-RES, F-13115 Saint-Paul lez Durance (France)
  2. CEA - Centre de Saclay, CEA/DEN/DMN, F- 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)
  3. Electricite de France, EDF/SEPTEN, F-69628 Villeurbanne (France)
Publication Date:
Research Org.:
American Nuclear Society - ANS, 555 North Kensington Avenue, La Grange Park, IL 60526 (United States)
OSTI Identifier:
22764083
Resource Type:
Conference
Resource Relation:
Conference: TOP FUEL 2016: LWR fuels with enhanced safety and performance, Boise, ID (United States), 11-15 Sep 2016; Other Information: Country of input: France; 20 refs.; Related Information: In: TOP FUEL 2016 Proceedings| 1670 p.
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 11 NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE AND FUEL MATERIALS; CLADDING; DIAGRAMS; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; FRACTURES; FUEL CANS; FUEL PELLETS; HYDRIDES; LOADING; NOTCHES; NUCLEAR FUELS; NUCLEATION; P CODES; PWR TYPE REACTORS; REACTIVITY-INITIATED ACCIDENTS; RUPTURES; STRESSES; SURFACES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; THICKNESS; ZIRCALOY 4

Citation Formats

Cazalis, B., Desquines, J., Le Jolu, T., and Bernaudat, C. The PROMETRA program: plane strain tests on fresh and highly irradiated zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 fuel claddings. United States: N. p., 2016. Web.
Cazalis, B., Desquines, J., Le Jolu, T., & Bernaudat, C. The PROMETRA program: plane strain tests on fresh and highly irradiated zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 fuel claddings. United States.
Cazalis, B., Desquines, J., Le Jolu, T., and Bernaudat, C. Fri . "The PROMETRA program: plane strain tests on fresh and highly irradiated zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 fuel claddings". United States.
@article{osti_22764083,
title = {The PROMETRA program: plane strain tests on fresh and highly irradiated zircaloy-4, ZIRLO and M5 fuel claddings},
author = {Cazalis, B. and Desquines, J. and Le Jolu, T. and Bernaudat, C.},
abstractNote = {In the framework of the PROMETRA program, clad hardening constitutive laws (stress-strain curves) have been already implemented in the SCANAIR code. These laws were derived from uniaxial hoop tensile tests performed on narrow machined ring samples. However, they do not reproduce the conditions of strain multi-axiality acting on cladding during a RIA (Reactivity-Initiated Accident) in a PWR. As a consequence, a new specimen called Plane Strain Tensile (PST) similar to the annular sample developed by Pennsylvania State University has been developed at CEA on a wider notched ring. It aims to accurately predict the cladding failure in more prototypical conditions, close to plane strain hoop tension in the middle of the gage section. This paper details the PST tests implementation and results in the framework of the PROMETRA program on fresh and irradiated claddings. The development of this test has led also to the development of a technique to measure local deformations in the gage section of the PST specimen using 2-D Digital Image Correlation (DIC). Tests performed on fresh Zircaloy-4 and on irradiated Zircaloy-4, M5 and ZIRLO specimens are analyzed relying of post-test examinations and finite element simulations. In the case of tests performed on irradiated Zry-4 and ZIRLO at 280 and 350 Celsius degrees, the presence of a hydride rim favors the crack nucleation on the outer surface. In this case, rupture nucleation occurs preferentially in the vicinity of notches. Such tests are not representative of the rupture of a cladding subjected to plane strain loading. Nevertheless, they give a good representation of the initiation of rupture observed during RIA on irradiated cladding, resulting in a hydride damage. Zry-4 specimens tested at 480 Celsius degrees and M5TM at 280 and 350 C. degrees result in a ductile fracture nucleation in the center of the specimen. This rupture is prototypical of a ductile rupture of an irradiated specimen subjected to a plane strain loading. However, the nucleation on inner surface by shear at the mandrel contact is not prototypical of a clad rupture during the PCMI (Pellet Clad Mechanical Interaction) phase of a RIA (membrane stresses in the clad thickness in RIA). An important lesson learned from this experimental approach is that the PST test is a particularly complex test, both in its implementation and interpretation.},
doi = {},
url = {https://www.osti.gov/biblio/22764083}, journal = {},
number = ,
volume = ,
place = {United States},
year = {2016},
month = {7}
}

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