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Title: Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE

Abstract

Highlights: • Consumption and future demand of critical metals were reviewed. • The global WEEE generation was summarized. •The global WEEE management and recycling were reviewed. • The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to metal recycling. • WEEE recycling can potentially relieve the supply risk of critical metals. - Abstract: New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth’s crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply. This paper focuses on the sustainable supply of typical critical metals (indium, rare earth elements (REEs), lithium, cobalt and precious metals) through recycling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To illuminate this issue, the production, consumption, expected future demand, current recycling situation of critical metals, WEEE management and their recycling have been reviewed. We find that the demand of indium, REEs, lithium and cobalt in EEE willmore » continuously increasing, while precious metals are decreasing because of new substitutions with less or even without precious metals. Although the generation of WEEE in 2014 was about 41.9 million tons (Mt), just about 15% (6.5 Mt) was treated environmentally. The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to relieving the supply risk of critical metals. Furthermore, due to the widespread use in low concentrations, such as indium, their recycling is not just technological problem, but economic feasibility is. Finally, relevant recommendations are point out to address these issues.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2]
  1. Institute for Advanced Materials and Technology, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing 100083 (China)
  2. Department of Engineering and Technical Services, District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority, Washington, DC 20032 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22742102
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Waste Management
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 65; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0956-053X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
12 MANAGEMENT OF RADIOACTIVE WASTES, AND NON-RADIOACTIVE WASTES FROM NUCLEAR FACILITIES; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT; INDIUM; RARE EARTHS; RECYCLING; SUPPLY AND DEMAND; WASTE MANAGEMENT

Citation Formats

Zhang, Shengen, Ding, Yunji, Liu, Bo, and Chang, Chein-chi. Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2017.04.003.
Zhang, Shengen, Ding, Yunji, Liu, Bo, & Chang, Chein-chi. Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE. United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2017.04.003.
Zhang, Shengen, Ding, Yunji, Liu, Bo, and Chang, Chein-chi. Sat . "Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE". United States. doi:10.1016/J.WASMAN.2017.04.003.
@article{osti_22742102,
title = {Supply and demand of some critical metals and present status of their recycling in WEEE},
author = {Zhang, Shengen and Ding, Yunji and Liu, Bo and Chang, Chein-chi},
abstractNote = {Highlights: • Consumption and future demand of critical metals were reviewed. • The global WEEE generation was summarized. •The global WEEE management and recycling were reviewed. • The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to metal recycling. • WEEE recycling can potentially relieve the supply risk of critical metals. - Abstract: New development and technological innovations make electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) more functional by using an increasing number of metals, particularly the critical metals (e.g. rare and precious metals) with specialized properties. As millions of people in emerging economies adopt a modern lifestyle, the demand for critical metals is soaring. However, the increasing demand causes the crisis of their supply because of their simple deficiency in the Earth’s crust or geopolitical constraints which might create political issues for their supply. This paper focuses on the sustainable supply of typical critical metals (indium, rare earth elements (REEs), lithium, cobalt and precious metals) through recycling waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE). To illuminate this issue, the production, consumption, expected future demand, current recycling situation of critical metals, WEEE management and their recycling have been reviewed. We find that the demand of indium, REEs, lithium and cobalt in EEE will continuously increasing, while precious metals are decreasing because of new substitutions with less or even without precious metals. Although the generation of WEEE in 2014 was about 41.9 million tons (Mt), just about 15% (6.5 Mt) was treated environmentally. The inefficient collection of WEEE is the main obstacle to relieving the supply risk of critical metals. Furthermore, due to the widespread use in low concentrations, such as indium, their recycling is not just technological problem, but economic feasibility is. Finally, relevant recommendations are point out to address these issues.},
doi = {10.1016/J.WASMAN.2017.04.003},
journal = {Waste Management},
issn = {0956-053X},
number = ,
volume = 65,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {7}
}