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Title: One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries

Abstract

The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na{sup +} and presence of vacancies in A(2)’, Na{sup +} and small amounts of Mn{sup 2+} in A(1), Mn{sup 2+} in M(1), 0.5 Mn{sup 2+} and Fe cations (Mn{sup 2+},Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na{sub 2}Mn(Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 1.5})(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 h at 220 °C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220 °C for 6 h. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 h, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of themore » reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mA h g{sup −1} for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99% during 50 cycles. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrographs (left) and evolution of the discharge on cycling with increasing rates from C/15 to 4 C (right) of NMFP material prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 220 °C at indicated time. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One-step hydrothermal method was used to prepare sodium manganese iron phosphate NMFP. • 3D-NMFP dandelion sphere-like particles were obtained at 220 °C after 6 h. • Increasing reaction time leads to the enhancement of the crystallinity and crystal stabilility of NMFP. • The growth of the particle size and change of morphology are correlated to the reaction time. • EC performance of NMFP powders were greatly affected by the synthesis conditions.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [1];  [1];  [2];  [3]; ;  [1]
  1. GREENMAT, CESAM, Institute of Chemistry B6, University of Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium)
  2. Laboratory of Mineralogy B18, University of Liège, 4000 Liège (Belgium)
  3. Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22742041
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Journal of Solid State Chemistry
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 253; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0022-4596
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CAPACITORS; CAPACITY; CARBON 15; CATHODES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; CURRENT DENSITY; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; HYDROGEN 6; HYDROTHERMAL SYNTHESIS; IRON PHOSPHATES; LITHIUM ION BATTERIES; MANGANESE IONS; MATERIALS; PARTICLE SIZE; PHYSICAL PROPERTIES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SODIUM IONS; X-RAY DIFFRACTION

Citation Formats

Karegeya, Claude, Mahmoud, Abdelfattah, Vertruyen, Bénédicte, Hatert, Frédéric, Hermann, Raphaël P., Cloots, Rudi, and Boschini, Frédéric. One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.06.021.
Karegeya, Claude, Mahmoud, Abdelfattah, Vertruyen, Bénédicte, Hatert, Frédéric, Hermann, Raphaël P., Cloots, Rudi, & Boschini, Frédéric. One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries. United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.06.021.
Karegeya, Claude, Mahmoud, Abdelfattah, Vertruyen, Bénédicte, Hatert, Frédéric, Hermann, Raphaël P., Cloots, Rudi, and Boschini, Frédéric. Fri . "One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries". United States. doi:10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.06.021.
@article{osti_22742041,
title = {One-step hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical performance of sodium-manganese-iron phosphate as cathode material for Li-ion batteries},
author = {Karegeya, Claude and Mahmoud, Abdelfattah and Vertruyen, Bénédicte and Hatert, Frédéric and Hermann, Raphaël P. and Cloots, Rudi and Boschini, Frédéric},
abstractNote = {The sodium-manganese-iron phosphate Na{sub 2}Mn{sub 1.5}Fe{sub 1.5}(PO{sub 4}){sub 3} (NMFP) with alluaudite structure was obtained by a one-step hydrothermal synthesis route. The physical properties and structure of this material were obtained through XRD and Mössbauer analyses. X-ray diffraction Rietveld refinements confirm a cationic distribution of Na{sup +} and presence of vacancies in A(2)’, Na{sup +} and small amounts of Mn{sup 2+} in A(1), Mn{sup 2+} in M(1), 0.5 Mn{sup 2+} and Fe cations (Mn{sup 2+},Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}) in M(2), leading to the structural formula Na{sub 2}Mn(Mn{sub 0.5}Fe{sub 1.5})(PO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The particles morphology was investigated by SEM. Several reactions with different hydrothermal reaction times were attempted to design a suitable synthesis protocol of NMFP compound. The time of reaction was varied from 6 to 48 h at 220 °C. The pure phase of NMFP particles was firstly obtained when the hydrothermal reaction of NMFP precursors mixture was maintained at 220 °C for 6 h. When the reaction time was increased from 6 to 12, 24 and 48 h, the dandelion structure was destroyed in favor of NMFP micro-rods. The combination of NMFP (NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H) structure refinement and Mössbauer characterizations shows that the increase of the reaction time leads to the progressive increment of Fe(III) and the decrease of the crystal size. The electrochemical tests indicated that NMFP is a 3 V sodium intercalating cathode. The comparison of the discharge capacity evolution of studied NMFP electrode materials at C/5 current density shows different capacities of 48, 40, 34 and 34 mA h g{sup −1} for NMFP-6H, NMFP-12H, NMFP-24H and NMFP-48H respectively. Interestingly, all samples show excellent capacity retention of about 99% during 50 cycles. - Graphical abstract: SEM micrographs (left) and evolution of the discharge on cycling with increasing rates from C/15 to 4 C (right) of NMFP material prepared by hydrothermal synthesis at 220 °C at indicated time. Display Omitted - Highlights: • One-step hydrothermal method was used to prepare sodium manganese iron phosphate NMFP. • 3D-NMFP dandelion sphere-like particles were obtained at 220 °C after 6 h. • Increasing reaction time leads to the enhancement of the crystallinity and crystal stabilility of NMFP. • The growth of the particle size and change of morphology are correlated to the reaction time. • EC performance of NMFP powders were greatly affected by the synthesis conditions.},
doi = {10.1016/J.JSSC.2017.06.021},
journal = {Journal of Solid State Chemistry},
issn = {0022-4596},
number = ,
volume = 253,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {9}
}