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Title: Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease

Abstract

Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one ofmore » two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma suPAR were measured in a cohort of 4648 Swedish men and women. • Blood cadmium was positively associated with plasma suPAR, also in never smokers.« less

Authors:
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22689525
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Environmental Research
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 152; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2016 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0013-9351
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ARTERIOSCLEROSIS; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; CADMIUM; GLOBULINS; ICP MASS SPECTROSCOPY; INFLAMMATION; LIPOPROTEINS; PLASMINOGEN; STATISTICAL MODELS; TOBACCO SMOKES; UROKINASE

Citation Formats

Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2016.10.019.
Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu. Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease. United States. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2016.10.019.
Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu. Sun . "Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease". United States. doi:10.1016/J.ENVRES.2016.10.019.
@article{osti_22689525,
title = {Cadmium exposure is associated with soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor, a circulating marker of inflammation and future cardiovascular disease},
author = {Fagerberg, Björn, E-mail: bjorn.fagerberg@wlab.gu.},
abstractNote = {Background: Diet and smoking are the main sources of cadmium exposure in the general population. Cadmium increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and experimental studies show that it induces inflammation. Blood cadmium levels are associated with macrophages in human atherosclerotic plaques. Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is an emerging biomarker for cardiovascular events related to inflammation and atherosclerotic plaques. The aim was to examine whether blood cadmium levels are associated with circulating suPAR and other markers of inflammation. Methods: A population sample of 4648 Swedish middle-aged women and men was examined cross-sectionally in 1991–1994. Plasma suPAR was assessed by ELISA, leukocytes were measured by standard methods, and blood cadmium was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Prevalent cardiovascular disease, ultrasound-assessed carotid plaque occurrence, and several possible confounding factors were recorded. Results: After full adjustment for risk factors and confounding variables, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with an 10.9% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.001). In never-smokers, a 3-fold increase in blood cadmium was associated with a 3.7% increase in suPAR concentration (p<0.01) after full adjustment. Blood cadmium was not associated with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count and Lp-PLA2 but with neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in one of two statistical models. Conclusions: Exposure to cadmium was associated with increased plasma suPAR in the general population, independently of smoking and cardiovascular disease. These results imply that cadmium is a possible cause for raised levels of this inflammatory marker. - Highlights: • Cadmium is a toxic proinflammatory, proatherosclerotic metal. • Soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) in plasma is a promising proinflammatory marker of atherosclerosis. • Blood cadmium and plasma suPAR were measured in a cohort of 4648 Swedish men and women. • Blood cadmium was positively associated with plasma suPAR, also in never smokers.},
doi = {10.1016/J.ENVRES.2016.10.019},
journal = {Environmental Research},
issn = {0013-9351},
number = ,
volume = 152,
place = {United States},
year = {2017},
month = {1}
}