skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water

Abstract

The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC{sub 50} values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed tomore » assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. - Highlights: • This is the first report of potential cytotoxicity and transforming activity of Marcellus shale gas mining flow back to mammalian cells. • Barium and Strontium were elevated in flow back water exposed cells. • Flow back water malignantly transformed cells and formed tumor in athymic nude mice. • Flow back transformed cells exhibited altered transcriptome with dysregulated cell migration pathway and adherent junction pathway.« less

Authors:
 [1];  [2];  [3];  [4]; ; ; ; ;  [5];  [6]; ;  [5];  [7];  [5]
  1. Department of Epidemiology, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Public Health (China)
  2. (United States)
  3. School of Material Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China)
  4. Biochemistry and Molecular Pharmaceutical, New York University School of Medicine (United States)
  5. Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)
  6. Robert Wood Johnson Medical School Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
  7. College of Science, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22687773
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Journal Name:
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Additional Journal Information:
Journal Volume: 288; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2015 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA); Journal ID: ISSN 0041-008X
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; AGAR; ANIMAL CELLS; BARIUM; CARCINOGENS; CELL TRANSFORMATIONS; COLONY FORMATION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ELECTRON SCANNING; HYDRAULIC FRACTURING; HYDRAULICS; MICE; MINING; NATURAL GAS; NATURAL GAS WELLS; NEOPLASMS; PUBLIC HEALTH; SHALE GAS; SHALES; STRONTIUM; SUPERCONDUCTING JUNCTIONS; TOXICITY; WASTE WATER; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY

Citation Formats

Yao, Yixin, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, Chen, Tingting, Shen, Steven S., Niu, Yingmei, DesMarais, Thomas L., Linn, Reka, Saunders, Eric, Fan, Zhihua, Lioy, Paul, Kluz, Thomas, Chen, Lung-Chi, Wu, Zhuangchun, E-mail: wuzhuangchun@mail.njust.edu.cn, and Costa, Max, E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water. United States: N. p., 2015. Web. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2015.07.011.
Yao, Yixin, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, Chen, Tingting, Shen, Steven S., Niu, Yingmei, DesMarais, Thomas L., Linn, Reka, Saunders, Eric, Fan, Zhihua, Lioy, Paul, Kluz, Thomas, Chen, Lung-Chi, Wu, Zhuangchun, E-mail: wuzhuangchun@mail.njust.edu.cn, & Costa, Max, E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org. Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water. United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2015.07.011.
Yao, Yixin, Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987, Chen, Tingting, Shen, Steven S., Niu, Yingmei, DesMarais, Thomas L., Linn, Reka, Saunders, Eric, Fan, Zhihua, Lioy, Paul, Kluz, Thomas, Chen, Lung-Chi, Wu, Zhuangchun, E-mail: wuzhuangchun@mail.njust.edu.cn, and Costa, Max, E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org. Thu . "Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water". United States. doi:10.1016/J.TAAP.2015.07.011.
@article{osti_22687773,
title = {Malignant human cell transformation of Marcellus Shale gas drilling flow back water},
author = {Yao, Yixin and Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, Tuxedo, NY 10987 and Chen, Tingting and Shen, Steven S. and Niu, Yingmei and DesMarais, Thomas L. and Linn, Reka and Saunders, Eric and Fan, Zhihua and Lioy, Paul and Kluz, Thomas and Chen, Lung-Chi and Wu, Zhuangchun, E-mail: wuzhuangchun@mail.njust.edu.cn and Costa, Max, E-mail: max.costa@nyumc.org},
abstractNote = {The rapid development of high-volume horizontal hydraulic fracturing for mining natural gas from shale has posed potential impacts on human health and biodiversity. The produced flow back waters after hydraulic stimulation are known to carry high levels of saline and total dissolved solids. To understand the toxicity and potential carcinogenic effects of these wastewaters, flow back waters from five Marcellus hydraulic fracturing oil and gas wells were analyzed. The physicochemical nature of these samples was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. A cytotoxicity study using colony formation as the endpoint was carried out to define the LC{sub 50} values of test samples using human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). The BEAS-2B cell transformation assay was employed to assess the carcinogenic potential of the samples. Barium and strontium were among the most abundant metals in these samples and the same metals were found to be elevated in BEAS-2B cells after long-term treatment. BEAS-2B cells treated for 6 weeks with flow back waters produced colony formation in soft agar that was concentration dependent. In addition, flow back water-transformed BEAS-2B cells show better migration capability when compared to control cells. This study provides information needed to assess the potential health impact of post-hydraulic fracturing flow back waters from Marcellus Shale natural gas mining. - Highlights: • This is the first report of potential cytotoxicity and transforming activity of Marcellus shale gas mining flow back to mammalian cells. • Barium and Strontium were elevated in flow back water exposed cells. • Flow back water malignantly transformed cells and formed tumor in athymic nude mice. • Flow back transformed cells exhibited altered transcriptome with dysregulated cell migration pathway and adherent junction pathway.},
doi = {10.1016/J.TAAP.2015.07.011},
journal = {Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology},
issn = {0041-008X},
number = 1,
volume = 288,
place = {United States},
year = {2015},
month = {10}
}