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Title: Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy

Abstract

Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT. Pinnacle{sup 3} Automatic treatment planning was designed to increase planning efficiency while maintaining or improving plan quality and consistency. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning on HA-WBRT treatment planning. Ten patients previously treated for brain metastases were selected. Hippocampal volumes were contoured on T1 magnetic resonance (MR) images, and planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated based on RTOG0933. The following 2 types of plans were generated by Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning: the one with 2 coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) arcs and the other with 9-field noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} of PTV were used to calculate homogeneity index (HI). HI and Paddick Conformity index (CI) of PTV as wellmore » as D{sub 100%} and D{sub max} of the hippocampus were used to evaluate the plan quality. All the auto-plans met the dose coverage and constraint objectives based on RTOG0933. The auto-plans eliminated the necessity of generating pseudostructures by the planners, and it required little manual intervention which expedited the planning process. IMRT quality assurance (QA) results also suggest that all the auto-plans are practically acceptable on delivery. Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning generates acceptable plans by RTOG0933 criteria without time-consuming planning process. The expedited quality planning achieved by Auto-Planning (AP) may facilitate protocol enrollment of patients to further investigate the hippocampal-sparing effect and be used to ensure timely start of palliative treatment in future clinical practice.« less

Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ; ;
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22685184
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Dosimetry; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; EFFICIENCY; HIPPOCAMPUS; IMAGES; MANUALS; METASTASES; PATIENTS; PERFORMANCE; PLANNING; QUALITY ASSURANCE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; QUALITY MANAGEMENT

Citation Formats

Wang, Shuo, E-mail: shuo0220@gmail.com, Zheng, Dandan, Zhang, Chi, Ma, Rongtao, Bennion, Nathan R., Lei, Yu, Zhu, Xiaofeng, Enke, Charles A., and Zhou, Sumin. Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.12.002.
Wang, Shuo, E-mail: shuo0220@gmail.com, Zheng, Dandan, Zhang, Chi, Ma, Rongtao, Bennion, Nathan R., Lei, Yu, Zhu, Xiaofeng, Enke, Charles A., & Zhou, Sumin. Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.12.002.
Wang, Shuo, E-mail: shuo0220@gmail.com, Zheng, Dandan, Zhang, Chi, Ma, Rongtao, Bennion, Nathan R., Lei, Yu, Zhu, Xiaofeng, Enke, Charles A., and Zhou, Sumin. Sat . "Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.12.002.
@article{osti_22685184,
title = {Automatic planning on hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy},
author = {Wang, Shuo, E-mail: shuo0220@gmail.com and Zheng, Dandan and Zhang, Chi and Ma, Rongtao and Bennion, Nathan R. and Lei, Yu and Zhu, Xiaofeng and Enke, Charles A. and Zhou, Sumin},
abstractNote = {Mounting evidence suggests that radiation-induced damage to the hippocampus plays a role in neurocognitive decline for patients receiving whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT). Hippocampal avoidance whole-brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been proposed to reduce the putative neurocognitive deficits by limiting the dose to the hippocampus. However, urgency of palliation for patients as well as the complexities of the treatment planning may be barriers to protocol enrollment to accumulate further clinical evidence. This warrants expedited quality planning of HA-WBRT. Pinnacle{sup 3} Automatic treatment planning was designed to increase planning efficiency while maintaining or improving plan quality and consistency. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the performance of the Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning on HA-WBRT treatment planning. Ten patients previously treated for brain metastases were selected. Hippocampal volumes were contoured on T1 magnetic resonance (MR) images, and planning target volumes (PTVs) were generated based on RTOG0933. The following 2 types of plans were generated by Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning: the one with 2 coplanar volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) arcs and the other with 9-field noncoplanar intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} of PTV were used to calculate homogeneity index (HI). HI and Paddick Conformity index (CI) of PTV as well as D{sub 100%} and D{sub max} of the hippocampus were used to evaluate the plan quality. All the auto-plans met the dose coverage and constraint objectives based on RTOG0933. The auto-plans eliminated the necessity of generating pseudostructures by the planners, and it required little manual intervention which expedited the planning process. IMRT quality assurance (QA) results also suggest that all the auto-plans are practically acceptable on delivery. Pinnacle{sup 3} Auto-Planning generates acceptable plans by RTOG0933 criteria without time-consuming planning process. The expedited quality planning achieved by Auto-Planning (AP) may facilitate protocol enrollment of patients to further investigate the hippocampal-sparing effect and be used to ensure timely start of palliative treatment in future clinical practice.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.12.002},
journal = {Medical Dosimetry},
number = 1,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using tomotherapy to deliver whole brain radiotherapy with hippocampal avoidance, hypothesized to reduce the risk of memory function decline, and simultaneously integrated boost to brain metastases to improve intracranial tumor control. Methods and Materials: Ten patients treated with radiosurgery and whole brain radiotherapy underwent repeat planning using tomotherapy with the original computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging-computed tomography fusion-defined target and normal structure contours. The individually contoured hippocampus was used as a dose-limiting structure (<6 Gy); the whole brain dose was prescribed at 32.25 Gy to 95% in 15 fractions, and the simultaneousmore » boost doses to individual brain metastases were 63 Gy to lesions {>=}2.0 cm in the maximal diameter and 70.8 Gy to lesions <2.0 cm. The plans were generated with a field width (FW) of 2.5 cm and, in 5 patients, with a FW of 1.0 cm. The plans were compared regarding conformation number, prescription isodose/target volume ratio, target coverage, homogeneity index, and mean normalized total dose. Results: A 1.0-cm FW compared with a 2.5-cm FW significantly improved the dose distribution. The mean conformation number improved from 0.55 {+-} 0.16 to 0.60 {+-} 0.13. Whole brain homogeneity improved by 32% (p <0.001). The mean normalized total dose to the hippocampus was 5.9 {+-} 1.3 Gy{sub 2} and 5.8 {+-} 1.9 Gy{sub 2} for 2.5- and 1.0-cm FW, respectively. The mean treatment delivery time for the 2.5- and 1.0-cm FW plans was 10.2 {+-} 1.0 and 21.8 {+-} 1.8 min, respectively. Conclusion: Composite tomotherapy plans achieved three objectives: homogeneous whole brain dose distribution equivalent to conventional whole brain radiotherapy; conformal hippocampal avoidance; and radiosurgically equivalent dose distributions to individual metastases.« less
  • Purpose: Hippocampus avoidance whole brain radiotherapy (HA-WBRT) has been shown to reduce the risk of neurocognitive dysfunction. This type of treatment has the potential of insurance company payment denial due to increased cost of intensity modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), while the accepted modality for WBRT is three-dimensional conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT). The purpose of this study is to assess HA-WBRT treatment plans using 3DCRT and multi-criteria optimization (MCO) that meets the RTOG 0933 criteria. Methods: Ten patients with brain metastases at least 0.5cm away from the hippocampal avoidance region as defined in RTOG 0933 were selected in this study. HA-WBRT treatment plansmore » with MCO 3DCRT technique (MCO-3D) was generated with beam arrangements and dose constraints following the RTOG 0933 guidelines. MCO-3D plans were compared with plans using MCO IMRT techniques (MCO-IMRT) with same beam arrangements and dose constraints. Evaluation parameters included D98% D2% and dose homogeneity index of PTV, and Dmax and D100% of the hippocampi. The OAR doses were also evaluated. Results: For MCO-IMRT plans, PTV D2% and hippocampi Dmax and D100% met RTOG 0933 objectives in all ten patients (PTV D2%<37.5Gy; Hippocampi Dmax<16Gy and D100%<9Gy). One patient met the RTOG 0933 PTV D98% objective (PTV D98%>25Gy) and 9/10 patients met acceptable variation (PTV D98%<25Gy). For MCO-3D plans, PTV D2% met RTOG 0933 objective for all patients; 1/10 patient for PTV D98% and 6/10 patients for Hippocampi Dmax and 7/10 patients for hippocampi D100% met RTOG 0933 objective. All the other patients met the RTOG 0933 acceptable variation requirement. (PTV D98%<25Gy; Hippocampi Dmax<17Gy and D100%<10Gy). Conclusion: All dosimetric parameters of MCO-3D plans met the criteria of at least acceptable variation per RTOG 0933. This may be helpful in cases where there is denial of patient’s medical insurance coverage due to the use of IMRT for HA-WBRT.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of using volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) to deliver whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with hippocampal avoidance and a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) for one to three brain metastases. Methods and Materials: Ten patients previously treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for one to three brain metastases underwent repeat planning using VMAT. The whole brain prescription dose was 32.25 Gy in 15 fractions, and SIB doses to brain metastases were 63 Gy to lesions >=2.0 cm and 70.8 Gy to lesions <2.0 cm in diameter. The mean dose to the hippocampus was kept at <6 Gy{sub 2}. Plansmore » were optimized for conformity and target coverage while minimizing hippocampal and ocular doses. Plans were evaluated on target coverage, prescription isodose to target volume ratio, conformity number, homogeneity index, and maximum dose to prescription dose ratio. Results: Ten patients had 18 metastases. Mean values for the brain metastases were as follows: conformity number = 0.73 +- 0.10, target coverage = 0.98 +- 0.01, prescription isodose to target volume = 1.34 +- 0.19, maximum dose to prescription dose ratio = 1.09 +- 0.02, and homogeneity index = 0.07 +- 0.02. For the whole brain, the mean target coverage and homogeneity index were 0.960 +- 0.002 and 0.39 +- 0.06, respectively. The mean hippocampal dose was 5.23 +- 0.39 Gy{sub 2}. The mean treatment delivery time was 3.6 min (range, 3.3-4.1 min). Conclusions: VMAT was able to achieve adequate whole brain coverage with conformal hippocampal avoidance and radiosurgical quality dose distributions for one to three brain metastases. The mean delivery time was under 4 min.« less
  • An efficient and simple class solution is proposed for hippocampal-avoidance whole-brain radiation therapy (HA-WBRT) planning using the Volumetric Arc Therapy (VMAT) delivery technique following the NRG Oncology protocol NRG-CC001 treatment planning guidelines. The whole-brain planning target volume (PTV) was subdivided into subplanning volumes that lie in plane and out of plane with the hippocampal-avoidance volume. To further improve VMAT treatment plans, a partial-field dual-arc technique was developed. Both the arcs were allowed to overlap on the in-plane subtarget volume, and in addition, one arc covered the superior out-of-plane sub-PTV, while the other covered the inferior out-of-plane subtarget volume. For allmore » plans (n = 20), the NRG-CC001 protocol dose-volume criteria were met. Mean values of volumes for the hippocampus and the hippocampal-avoidance volume were 4.1 cm{sup 3} ± 1.0 cm{sup 3} and 28.52 cm{sup 3} ± 3.22 cm{sup 3}, respectively. For the PTV, the average values of D{sub 2%} and D{sub 98%} were 36.1 Gy ± 0.8 Gy and 26.2 Gy ± 0.6 Gy, respectively. The hippocampus D{sub 100%} mean value was 8.5 Gy ± 0.2 Gy and the maximum dose was 15.7 Gy ± 0.3 Gy. The corresponding plan quality indices were 0.30 ± 0.01 (homogeneity index), 0.94 ± 0.01 (target conformality), and 0.75 ± 0.02 (confirmation number). The median total monitor unit (MU) per fraction was 806 MU (interquartile range [IQR]: 792 to 818 MU) and the average beam total delivery time was 121.2 seconds (IQR: 120.6 to 121.35 seconds). All plans passed the gamma evaluation using the 5-mm, 4% criteria, with γ > 1 of not more than 9.1% data points for all fields. An efficient and simple planning class solution for HA-WBRT using VMAT has been developed that allows all protocol constraints of NRG-CC001 to be met.« less
  • Purpose: To retrospectively evaluate the accuracy, plan quality and efficiency of intensity-modulated arc therapy (IMAT) for hippocampal sparing whole-brain radiotherapy (HS-WBRT) with simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) in patients with multiple brain metastases (m-BM). Materials and methods: A total of 5 patients with m-BM were retrospectively replanned for HS-WBRT with SIB using IMAT treatment planning. The hippocampus was contoured on diagnostic T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which had been fused with the planning CT image set. The hippocampal avoidance zone (HAZ) was generated using a 5-mm uniform margin around the paired hippocampi. The m-BM planning target volumes (PTVs) were contoured onmore » T1/T2-weighted MRI registered with the 3D planning computed tomography (CT). The whole-brain planning target volume (WB-PTV) was defined as the whole-brain tissue volume minus HAZ and m-BM PTVs. Highly conformal IMAT plans were generated in the Eclipse treatment planning system for Novalis-TX linear accelerator consisting of high-definition multileaf collimators (HD-MLCs: 2.5-mm leaf width at isocenter) and 6-MV beam. Prescription dose was 30 Gy for WB-PTV and 45 Gy for each m-BM in 10 fractions. Three full coplanar arcs with orbit avoidance sectors were used. Treatment plans were evaluated using homogeneity (HI) and conformity indices (CI) for target coverage and dose to organs at risk (OAR). Dose delivery efficiency and accuracy of each IMAT plan was assessed via quality assurance (QA) with a MapCHECK device. Actual beam-on time was recorded and a gamma index was used to compare dose agreement between the planned and measured doses. Results: All 5 HS-WBRT with SIB plans met WB-PTV D{sub 2%}, D{sub 98%}, and V{sub 30} {sub Gy} NRG-CC001 requirements. The plans demonstrated highly conformal and homogenous coverage of the WB-PTV with mean HI and CI values of 0.33 ± 0.04 (range: 0.27 to 0.36), and 0.96 ± 0.01 (range: 0.95 to 0.97), respectively. All 5 hippocampal sparing patients met protocol guidelines with maximum dose and dose to 100% of hippocampus (D{sub 100%}) less than 16 and 9 Gy, respectively. The dose to the optic apparatus was kept below protocol guidelines for all 5 patients. Highly conformal and homogenous radiosurgical dose distributions were achieved for all 5 patients with a total of 33 brain metastases. The m-BM PTVs had a mean HI = 0.09 ± 0.02 (range: 0.07 to 0.19) and a mean CI = 1.02 ± 0.06 (range: 0.93 to 1.2). The total number of monitor units (MU) was, on average, 1677 ± 166. The average beam-on time was 4.1 ± 0.4 minute . The IMAT plans demonstrated accurate dose delivery of 95.2 ± 0.6%, on average, for clinical gamma passing rate with 2%/2-mm criteria and 98.5 ± 0.9%, on average, with 3%/3-mm criteria. Conclusions: All hippocampal sparing plans were considered clinically acceptable per NRG-CC001 dosimetric compliance criteria. IMAT planning provided highly conformal and homogenous dose distributions for the WB-PTV and m-BM PTVs with lower doses to OAR such as the hippocampus. These results suggest that HS-WBRT with SIB is a clinically feasible, fast, and effective treatment option for patients with a relatively large numbers of m-BM lesions.« less