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Title: Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy

Abstract

Aims: To report the acute toxicity and the dosimetric correlates after moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 101 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Patients were treated to 65 Gy/25 Fr/5 weeks (n = 18), or 60 Gy/20 Fr/4 weeks (n = 83). Most (82.2%) had high-risk or pelvic node-positive disease. Acute toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute morbidity scoring criteria. Dose thresholds for acute rectal and bladder toxicity were identified. Results: The incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 20.8%, and grade 2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 6.9%. No Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred. Small bowel toxicity was uncommon (Gr 2 = 4%). The 2 Gy equivalent doses (EQD2) to the rectum and bladder (α/β = 3) calculated showed that the absolute doses were more consistent predictors of acute toxicities than the relative volumes. Those with grade 2 or more GI symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} (13.2 vs 9.9 cc, p = 0.007) and V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} (20.6 vs 15.4 cc, p = 0.005). Those with grade 2 or more GU symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-70} {submore » Gy} (30.4 vs 18.4 cc, p = 0.001) and V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy} (44.0 vs 28.8 cc, p = 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for predicting grade 2 acute proctitis, for V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} was 9.7 cc and for V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} was 15.9 cc. For grade 2 GU symptoms, the threshold values were 23.6 cc for V{sub EQD2-70} {sub Gy} and 38.1 cc for V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy}. Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer is well tolerated and associated with manageable acute side effects. The absolute dose-volume parameters of rectum and bladder predict for acute toxicities.« less

Authors:
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Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22685176
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Dosimetry; Journal Volume: 42; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2017 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; 62 RADIOLOGY AND NUCLEAR MEDICINE; BLADDER; D QUARKS; DISEASE INCIDENCE; DOSE EQUIVALENTS; HAZARDS; IMAGES; NEOPLASMS; PATIENTS; PROCTITIS; PROSTATE; RADIATION DOSES; RADIOTHERAPY; RECTUM; SIDE EFFECTS; SYMPTOMS; TOXICITY

Citation Formats

Arunsingh, Moses, Mallick, Indranil, E-mail: imallick@gmail.com, Prasath, Sriram, Arun, B., Sarkar, Sandip, Shrimali, Raj Kumar, Chatterjee, Sanjoy, and Achari, Rimpa. Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.10.002.
Arunsingh, Moses, Mallick, Indranil, E-mail: imallick@gmail.com, Prasath, Sriram, Arun, B., Sarkar, Sandip, Shrimali, Raj Kumar, Chatterjee, Sanjoy, & Achari, Rimpa. Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy. United States. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.10.002.
Arunsingh, Moses, Mallick, Indranil, E-mail: imallick@gmail.com, Prasath, Sriram, Arun, B., Sarkar, Sandip, Shrimali, Raj Kumar, Chatterjee, Sanjoy, and Achari, Rimpa. Sat . "Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy". United States. doi:10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.10.002.
@article{osti_22685176,
title = {Acute toxicity and its dosimetric correlates for high-risk prostate cancer treated with moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy},
author = {Arunsingh, Moses and Mallick, Indranil, E-mail: imallick@gmail.com and Prasath, Sriram and Arun, B. and Sarkar, Sandip and Shrimali, Raj Kumar and Chatterjee, Sanjoy and Achari, Rimpa},
abstractNote = {Aims: To report the acute toxicity and the dosimetric correlates after moderately hypofractionated radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer. Methods: A total of 101 patients with localized prostate cancer were treated with image-guided intensity-modulated radiation therapy. Patients were treated to 65 Gy/25 Fr/5 weeks (n = 18), or 60 Gy/20 Fr/4 weeks (n = 83). Most (82.2%) had high-risk or pelvic node-positive disease. Acute toxicity was assessed using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) acute morbidity scoring criteria. Dose thresholds for acute rectal and bladder toxicity were identified. Results: The incidence of acute grade 2 GI toxicity was 20.8%, and grade 2 genitourinary (GU) toxicity was 6.9%. No Grade 3 to 4 toxicity occurred. Small bowel toxicity was uncommon (Gr 2 = 4%). The 2 Gy equivalent doses (EQD2) to the rectum and bladder (α/β = 3) calculated showed that the absolute doses were more consistent predictors of acute toxicities than the relative volumes. Those with grade 2 or more GI symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} (13.2 vs 9.9 cc, p = 0.007) and V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} (20.6 vs 15.4 cc, p = 0.005). Those with grade 2 or more GU symptoms had significantly higher V{sub EQD2-70} {sub Gy} (30.4 vs 18.4 cc, p = 0.001) and V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy} (44.0 vs 28.8 cc, p = 0.001). The optimal cutoff value for predicting grade 2 acute proctitis, for V{sub EQD2-60} {sub Gy} was 9.7 cc and for V{sub EQD2-50} {sub Gy} was 15.9 cc. For grade 2 GU symptoms, the threshold values were 23.6 cc for V{sub EQD2-70} {sub Gy} and 38.1 cc for V{sub EQD2-65} {sub Gy}. Conclusions: Hypofractionated radiotherapy for prostate cancer is well tolerated and associated with manageable acute side effects. The absolute dose-volume parameters of rectum and bladder predict for acute toxicities.},
doi = {10.1016/J.MEDDOS.2016.10.002},
journal = {Medical Dosimetry},
number = 1,
volume = 42,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}
  • Purpose: To report acute toxicity resulting from radiotherapy (RT) dose escalation and hypofractionation using intensity-modulated RT (IMRT) treatment combined with androgen suppression in high-risk prostate cancer patients. Methods and Materials: Sixty patients with a histological diagnosis of high-risk prostatic adenocarcinoma (having either a clinical Stage of >=T3a or an initial prostate-specific antigen [PSA] level of >=20 ng/ml or a Gleason score of 8 to 10 or a combination of a PSA concentration of >15 ng/ml and a Gleason score of 7) were enrolled. RT prescription was 68 Gy in 25 fractions (2.72 Gy/fraction) over 5 weeks to the prostate andmore » proximal seminal vesicles. The pelvic lymph nodes and distal seminal vesicles concurrently received 45 Gy in 25 fractions. The patients were treated with helical TomoTherapy-based IMRT and underwent daily megavoltage CT image-guided verification prior to each treatment. Acute toxicity scores were recorded weekly during RT and at 3 months post-RT, using Radiation Therapy Oncology Group acute toxicity scales. Results: All patients completed RT and follow up for 3 months. The maximum acute toxicity scores were as follows: 21 (35%) patients had Grade 2 gastrointestinal (GI) toxicity; 4 (6.67%) patients had Grade 3 genitourinary (GU) toxicity; and 30 (33.33%) patients had Grade 2 GU toxicity. These toxicity scores were reduced after RT; there were only 8 (13.6%) patients with Grade 1 GI toxicity, 11 (18.97%) with Grade 1 GU toxicity, and 5 (8.62%) with Grade 2 GU toxicity at 3 months follow up. Only the V60 to the rectum correlated with the GI toxicity. Conclusion: Dose escalation using a hypofractionated schedule to the prostate with concurrent pelvic lymph node RT and long-term androgen suppression therapy is well tolerated acutely. Longer follow up for outcome and late toxicity is required.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the acute toxicities of hypofractionated accelerated radiotherapy (RT) using a concomitant intensity-modulated RT boost in conjunction with elective pelvic nodal irradiation for high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: This report focused on 66 patients entered into this prospective Phase I study. The eligible patients had clinically localized prostate cancer with at least one of the following high-risk features (Stage T3, Gleason score {>=}8, or prostate-specific antigen level >20 ng/mL). Patients were treated with 45 Gy in 25 fractions to the pelvic lymph nodes using a conventional four-field technique. A concomitant intensity-modulated radiotherapy boost of 22.5 Gy inmore » 25 fractions was delivered to the prostate. Thus, the prostate received 67.5 Gy in 25 fractions within 5 weeks. Next, the patients underwent 3 years of adjuvant androgen ablative therapy. Acute toxicities were assessed using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 3.0, weekly during treatment and at 3 months after RT. Results: The median patient age was 71 years. The median pretreatment prostate-specific antigen level and Gleason score was 18.7 ng/L and 8, respectively. Grade 1-2 genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were common during RT but most had settled at 3 months after treatment. Only 5 patients had acute Grade 3 genitourinary toxicity, in the form of urinary incontinence (n = 1), urinary frequency/urgency (n = 3), and urinary retention (n = 1). None of the patients developed Grade 3 or greater gastrointestinal or Grade 4 or greater genitourinary toxicity. Conclusion: The results of the present study have indicated that hypofractionated accelerated RT with a concomitant intensity-modulated RT boost and pelvic nodal irradiation is feasible with acceptable acute toxicity.« less
  • Purpose: To perform a comparison of two pelvic lymph node volume delineation strategies used in intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) for high risk prostate cancer and to determine the role of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT). Methods and Materials: Eighteen consecutive patients accrued to an ongoing clinical trial were identified according to either the nodal contouring strategy as described based on lymphotropic nanoparticle-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging technology (9 patients) or the current Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) consensus guidelines (9 patients). Radiation consisted of 45 Gy to prostate, seminal vesicles, and lymph nodes, with a simultaneous integrated boost to the prostate alone,more » to a total dose of 67.5 Gy delivered in 25 fractions. Prospective acute genitourinary and gastrointestinal toxicities were compared at baseline, during radiotherapy, and 3 months after radiotherapy. Each patient was retrospectively replanned using the opposite method of nodal contouring, and plans were normalized for dosimetric comparison. VMAT plans were also generated according to the RTOG method for comparison. Results: RTOG plans resulted in a significantly lower rate of genitourinary frequency 3 months after treatment. The dosimetric comparison showed that the RTOG plans resulted in both favorable planning target volume (PTV) coverage and lower organs at risk (OARs) and integral (ID) doses. VMAT required two to three arcs to achieve adequate treatment plans, we did not observe consistent dosimetric benefits to either the PTV or the OARs, and a higher ID was observed. However, treatment times were significantly shorter with VMAT. Conclusion: The RTOG guidelines for pelvic nodal volume delineation results in favorable dosimetry and acceptable acute toxicities for both the target and OARs. We are unable to conclude that VMAT provides a benefit compared with IMRT.« less
  • Purpose: To investigate predictors for gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) acute toxicity after a short-course hypofractionated radiotherapy regimen for prostate cancer. Materials and Methods: Three institutions included 102 patients with T1-T3N0M0 prostate cancer in a Phase II study. Patients were treated with 56 Gy in 16 fractions over 4 weeks. Acute toxicity was scored weekly during treatment and 1 and 2 months after treatment using the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group/European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer criteria extended with additional symptoms and the International Prostate Symptom Index (IPSS). Correlation with a number of clinical and dosimetric parameters was assessedmore » by univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: No Grade 3 or 4 GI side effects were observed. Grades 1 and 2 rectal GI toxicity occurred in 36%, and 38%, respectively. Corresponding figures for Grades 1 and 2 GU toxicity were 42% and 39%, respectively. Grade 3 or higher GU toxicity was detected in 4% of patients. In multivariate analysis, percent rectal volumes higher than 8% receiving doses {>=}53 Gy (V{sub 53}) were statistically correlated to Grade 2 acute rectal reaction (p = 0.006). For GU morbidity, only the IPSS pretreatment score was independently associated (p = 0.0036) with an increase in GU acute effects. Conclusions: Acute GU and GI toxicity were comparable with other series. Our data show that increased incidence and intensity of acute toxicity is a transient effect related to shorter overall treatment time rather than a larger effect in biological equivalent dose with respect to a conventional fractionation regime.« less
  • Purpose: To evaluate the 10-year outcomes of intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients treated with a prospective dose escalation hypofractionated trial of pelvic external beam radiation therapy (P-EBRT) with a high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy boost. Methods and Materials: From 1992 to 2007, 472 patients were treated with a HDR boost at William Beaumont Hospital. They had at least one of the following: a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level of >10 ng/ml, a Gleason score of {>=}7, or clinical stage {>=}T2b. Patients received 46-Gy P-EBRT and an HDR boost. The HDR dose fractionation was divided into two dose levels. The prostate biologically equivalentmore » dose (BED) low-dose-level group received <268 Gy, and the high-dose group received >268 Gy . Phoenix biochemical failure (BF) definition was used. Results: Median follow-up was 8.2 years (range, 0.4-17 years). The 10-year biochemical failure rate of 43.1% vs. 18.9%, (p < 0.001), the clinical failure rate of 23.4% vs. 7.7%, (p < 0.001), and the distant metastasis of 12.4% vs. 5.7%, (p = 0.028) were all significantly better for the high-dose level group. On Cox multivariate analysis, higher BED levels (p = 0.017; hazard ratio [HR]= 0.586), pretreatment PSA assays (p < 0.001, HR = 1.022), and Gleason scores (p = 0.004) were significant variables for reduced biochemical failure. Higher dose levels (p, 0.002; HR, 0.397) and Gleason scores (p < 0.001) were significant for clinical failure. Grade 3 genitourinary complications were 2% and 3%, respectively, and grade 3 gastrointestinal complication was <0.5%. Conclusions: This prospective trial using P-EBRT with HDR boost and hypofractionated dose escalation demonstrates a strong dose-response relationship for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer patients. The improvement at 10 years for locoregional control with higher radiation doses (BED, > 268Gy) has significantly decreased biochemical and clinical failures as well as distant metastasis.« less