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Title: Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance

Abstract

Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.

Authors:
;  [1]
  1. Center for Theoretical Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute for Computational Science, University of Zürich, Winterthurerstrasse 190, CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22679901
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; Journal Volume: 2017; Journal Issue: 04; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCELERATION; DISTANCE; EQUIVALENCE PRINCIPLE; FORECASTING; GAUGE INVARIANCE; INFRARED DIVERGENCES; LUMINOSITY; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; UNIVERSE

Citation Formats

Biern, Sang Gyu, and Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/04/045.
Biern, Sang Gyu, & Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch. Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/04/045.
Biern, Sang Gyu, and Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch. Sat . "Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance". United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/04/045.
@article{osti_22679901,
title = {Gauge-invariance and infrared divergences in the luminosity distance},
author = {Biern, Sang Gyu and Yoo, Jaiyul, E-mail: sgbiern@physik.uzh.ch, E-mail: jyoo@physik.uzh.ch},
abstractNote = {Measurements of the luminosity distance have played a key role in discovering the late-time cosmic acceleration. However, when accounting for inhomogeneities in the Universe, its interpretation has been plagued with infrared divergences in its theoretical predictions, which are in some cases used to explain the cosmic acceleration without dark energy. The infrared divergences in most calculations are artificially removed by imposing an infrared cut-off scale. We show that a gauge-invariant calculation of the luminosity distance is devoid of such divergences and consistent with the equivalence principle, eliminating the need to impose a cut-off scale. We present proper numerical calculations of the luminosity distance using the gauge-invariant expression and demonstrate that the numerical results with an ad hoc cut-off scale in previous calculations have negligible systematic errors as long as the cut-off scale is larger than the horizon scale. We discuss the origin of infrared divergences and their cancellation in the luminosity distance.},
doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2017/04/045},
journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},
number = 04,
volume = 2017,
place = {United States},
year = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},
month = {Sat Apr 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}
}