# Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture

## Abstract

In this paper, we provide a counter-example to the ER=EPR conjecture. In an anti-de Sitter space, we construct a pair of maximally entangled but separated black holes. Due to the vacuum decay of the anti-de Sitter background toward a deeper vacuum, these two parts can be trapped by bubbles. If these bubbles are reasonably large, then within the scrambling time, there should appear an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the two black holes. Now by tracing more details on the bubble dynamics, one can identify parameters such that one of the two bubbles either monotonically shrinks or expands. Because of the change of vacuum energy, one side of the black hole would evaporate completely. Due to the shrinking of the apparent horizon, a signal of one side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge can be viewed from the opposite side. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that within a reasonable semi-classical parameter regime, such process can happen. Bubbles are a non-perturbative effect, which is the crucial reason that allows the transmission of information between the two black holes through the Einstein-Rosen bridge, even though the probability is highly suppressed. Therefore, the ER=EPR conjecture cannot be generic in its present form and its validity maybe restricted.

- Authors:

- Leung Center for Cosmology and Particle Astrophysics, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China)

- Publication Date:

- OSTI Identifier:
- 22676146

- Resource Type:
- Journal Article

- Resource Relation:
- Journal Name: Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics; Journal Volume: 2017; Journal Issue: 06; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)

- Country of Publication:
- United States

- Language:
- English

- Subject:
- 72 PHYSICS OF ELEMENTARY PARTICLES AND FIELDS; ANTI DE SITTER SPACE; BLACK HOLES; ELECTRON SPIN RESONANCE; PARTICLE DECAY; PROBABILITY; QUANTUM ENTANGLEMENT; TRANSMISSION; TRAPPING

### Citation Formats

```
Chen, Pisin, Wu, Chih-Hung, and Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b02202007@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com.
```*Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture*. United States: N. p., 2017.
Web. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/06/040.

```
Chen, Pisin, Wu, Chih-Hung, & Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b02202007@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com.
```*Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture*. United States. doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/06/040.

```
Chen, Pisin, Wu, Chih-Hung, and Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b02202007@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com. Thu .
"Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture". United States.
doi:10.1088/1475-7516/2017/06/040.
```

```
@article{osti_22676146,
```

title = {Broken bridges: a counter-example of the ER=EPR conjecture},

author = {Chen, Pisin and Wu, Chih-Hung and Yeom, Dong-han, E-mail: pisinchen@phys.ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: b02202007@ntu.edu.tw, E-mail: innocent.yeom@gmail.com},

abstractNote = {In this paper, we provide a counter-example to the ER=EPR conjecture. In an anti-de Sitter space, we construct a pair of maximally entangled but separated black holes. Due to the vacuum decay of the anti-de Sitter background toward a deeper vacuum, these two parts can be trapped by bubbles. If these bubbles are reasonably large, then within the scrambling time, there should appear an Einstein-Rosen bridge between the two black holes. Now by tracing more details on the bubble dynamics, one can identify parameters such that one of the two bubbles either monotonically shrinks or expands. Because of the change of vacuum energy, one side of the black hole would evaporate completely. Due to the shrinking of the apparent horizon, a signal of one side of the Einstein-Rosen bridge can be viewed from the opposite side. We analytically and numerically demonstrate that within a reasonable semi-classical parameter regime, such process can happen. Bubbles are a non-perturbative effect, which is the crucial reason that allows the transmission of information between the two black holes through the Einstein-Rosen bridge, even though the probability is highly suppressed. Therefore, the ER=EPR conjecture cannot be generic in its present form and its validity maybe restricted.},

doi = {10.1088/1475-7516/2017/06/040},

journal = {Journal of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics},

number = 06,

volume = 2017,

place = {United States},

year = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017},

month = {Thu Jun 01 00:00:00 EDT 2017}

}