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Title: A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE

Abstract

During its strong outburst of 2015 June/July, the X-ray transient V404 Cygni (=GS2023+338) was observed up to a level of 50 Crab in the hard X-ray domain. We focus here on a particularly intense episode preceeding a definitive decline of the source activity. We benefit from large signal-to-noise ratios to investigate the source spectral variability, on a timescale of five minutes. A hardness–intensity study of three broad bands reveals clearly different behaviors at low and high energy (below and above ∼100 keV). In particular, on two occasions, the source intensity varies by a factor of 3–4 in amplitude while keeping the same spectral shape. On the other hand, at the end of the major flare, the emission presents a clear anticorrelation between flux and hardness. These behaviors strongly suggest the presence of two spectral components related to emission processes varying in a largely independent way. The first component ( E < 100–150 keV) is classically identified with a Comptonizing thermal electron population, and requires either an unusual seed photon population or a specific geometry with strong absorbing/reflecting material. The second component is modeled by a cutoff power-law, which could correspond to a second hotter Comptonizing population or another mechanism (synchrotron,more » non-thermal Comptonization...). In the framework of such a model, hardness–intensity and flux–flux diagrams clearly demonstrate that the source evolution follows a well-organized underlying scheme. They reveal unique information about the hard X-ray emission processes and connections between them.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Université Toulouse, UPS-OMP, CNRS, IRAP, 9 Avenue Roche, BP 44346, F-31028 Toulouse (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663977
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 834; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AMPLITUDES; BLACK HOLES; CRABS; EMISSION; EVOLUTION; HARD X RADIATION; KEV RANGE; NOISE; SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO; SIMULATION; TRANSIENTS

Citation Formats

Jourdain, Elisabeth, Roques, Jean-Pierre, and Rodi, James. A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/130.
Jourdain, Elisabeth, Roques, Jean-Pierre, & Rodi, James. A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/130.
Jourdain, Elisabeth, Roques, Jean-Pierre, and Rodi, James. Tue . "A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/130.
@article{osti_22663977,
title = {A CHALLENGING VIEW OF THE 2015 SUMMER V404 CYG OUTBURST AT HIGH ENERGY WITH INTEGRAL /SPI: THE FINALE},
author = {Jourdain, Elisabeth and Roques, Jean-Pierre and Rodi, James},
abstractNote = {During its strong outburst of 2015 June/July, the X-ray transient V404 Cygni (=GS2023+338) was observed up to a level of 50 Crab in the hard X-ray domain. We focus here on a particularly intense episode preceeding a definitive decline of the source activity. We benefit from large signal-to-noise ratios to investigate the source spectral variability, on a timescale of five minutes. A hardness–intensity study of three broad bands reveals clearly different behaviors at low and high energy (below and above ∼100 keV). In particular, on two occasions, the source intensity varies by a factor of 3–4 in amplitude while keeping the same spectral shape. On the other hand, at the end of the major flare, the emission presents a clear anticorrelation between flux and hardness. These behaviors strongly suggest the presence of two spectral components related to emission processes varying in a largely independent way. The first component ( E < 100–150 keV) is classically identified with a Comptonizing thermal electron population, and requires either an unusual seed photon population or a specific geometry with strong absorbing/reflecting material. The second component is modeled by a cutoff power-law, which could correspond to a second hotter Comptonizing population or another mechanism (synchrotron, non-thermal Comptonization...). In the framework of such a model, hardness–intensity and flux–flux diagrams clearly demonstrate that the source evolution follows a well-organized underlying scheme. They reveal unique information about the hard X-ray emission processes and connections between them.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/834/2/130},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 834,
place = {United States},
year = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Tue Jan 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • The black hole binary GS 2023+338 exhibited an unprecedently bright outburst in 2015 June. On 2015 June 17, the high energy instruments on board INTEGRAL detected an extremely variable emission during both bright and low luminosity phases, with dramatic variations of the hardness ratio on timescales of approximately seconds. The analysis of the IBIS and SPI data reveals the presence of hard spectra in the brightest phases, compatible with thermal Comptonization with a temperature of kT{sub e} ∼ 40 keV. The seed photon’s temperature is best fit by kT{sub 0} ∼ 7 keV, which is too high to be compatiblemore » with blackbody emission from the disk. This result is consistent with the seed photons being provided by a different source, which we hypothesize to be a synchrotron driven component in the jet. During the brightest phase of flares, the hardness shows a complex pattern of correlation with flux, with the maximum energy released in the range of 40–100 keV. The hard-X-ray variability for E > 50 keV is correlated with flux variations in the softer band, showing that the overall source variability cannot originate entirely from absorption, but at least part of it is due to the central accreting source.« less
  • In 2015 June, the source V404 Cygni (= GS2023+38) underwent an extraordinary outburst. We present the results obtained during the first revolution dedicated to this target by the INTEGRAL mission and focus on the spectral behavior in the hard X-ray domain, using both SPI and IBIS instruments. The source exhibits extreme variability and reaches fluxes of several tens of Crab. However, the emission between 20 and 650 keV can be understood in terms of two main components, varying on all the observable timescales, similar to what is observed in the persistent black hole system Cyg X-1. The low-energy component (upmore » to ∼200 keV) presents a rather unusual shape, probably due to the intrinsic source variability. Nonetheless, a satisfactory description is obtained with a Comptonization model, if an unusually hot population of seed photons (kT{sub 0} ∼ 7 keV) is introduced. Above this first component, a clear excess extending up to 400–600 keV leads us to investigate a scenario where an additional (cutoff) power law could correspond to the contribution of the jet synchrotron emission, as proposed in Cyg X-1. A search for an annihilation feature did not provide any firm detection, with an upper limit of 2 × 10{sup −4} ph cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} (2σ) for a narrow line centered at 511 keV, on the averaged obtained spectrum.« less
  • On 2015 June 15 the burst alert telescope (BAT) on board Swift detected an X-ray outburst from the black hole (BH) transient V404 Cyg. We monitored V404 Cyg for the last 10 years with the 2-m Faulkes Telescope North in three optical bands (V, R, and i′). We found that, one week prior to this outburst, the optical flux was 0.1–0.3 mag brighter than the quiescent orbital modulation, implying an optical precursor to the X-ray outburst. There is also a hint of a gradual optical decay (years) followed by a rise lasting two months prior to the outburst. We fortuitouslymore » obtained an optical spectrum of V404 Cyg 13 hr before the BAT trigger. This too was brighter than quiescence, and showed spectral lines typical of an accretion disk, with characteristic absorption features of the donor being much weaker. No He ii emission was detected, which would have been expected had the X-ray flux been substantially brightening. This, combined with the presence of intense Hα emission, about seven times the quiescent level, suggests that the disk entered the hot, outburst state before the X-ray outburst began. We propose that the outburst is produced by a viscous–thermal instability triggered close to the inner edge of a truncated disk. An X-ray delay of a week is consistent with the time needed to refill the inner region and hence move the inner edge of the disk inwards, allowing matter to reach the central BH, finally turning on the X-ray emission.« less
  • V404 Cygni was discovered in 1989 by the Ginga X-ray satellite during its only previously observed X-ray outburst and soon after confirmed as a black hole binary. On 2015 June 15, the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) triggered on a new outburst of V404 Cygni. We present 13 days of GBM observations of this outburst, including Earth occultation flux measurements and spectral and temporal analysis. The Earth occultation fluxes reached 30 Crab with detected emission to 100 keV and determined, via hardness ratios, that the source was in a hard state. At high luminosity, spectral analysis between 8 and 300 keVmore » showed that the electron temperature decreased with increasing luminosity. This is expected if the protons and electrons are in thermal equilibrium during an outburst with the electrons cooled by the Compton scattering of softer seed photons from the disk. However, the implied seed photon temperatures are unusually high, suggesting a contribution from another source, such as the jet. No evidence of state transitions is seen during this time period. The temporal analysis reveals power spectra that can be modeled with two or three strong, broad Lorentzians, similar to the power spectra of black hole binaries in their hard state.« less
  • The AGILE satellite detected transient high-energy γ -ray emission from the X-ray binary V404 Cygni, during the 2015 June outburst observed in radio, optical, X-ray, and soft γ -ray frequencies. The activity was observed by AGILE in the 50–400 MeV energy band, between 2015 June 24 UT 06:00:00 and 2015 June 26 UT 06:00:00 (MJD 57197.25–57199.25), with a detection significance of ∼4.3 σ . The γ -ray detection, consistent with a contemporaneous observation by Fermi -LAT, is correlated with a bright flare observed at radio and hard X-ray frequencies, and with a strong enhancement of the 511 keV line emission,more » possibly indicating plasmoid ejections in a lepton-dominated transient jet. The AGILE observations of this binary system are compatible with a microquasar scenario in which transient jets are responsible for the high-energy γ -ray emission.« less