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Title: Similarity of PSR J1906+0746 to PSR J0737–3039: a Candidate of a New Double Pulsar System?

Abstract

PSR J1906+0746 is a nonrecycled strong magnetic field neutron star (NS), sharing the properties of the secondary-formed NS PSR J0737–3039B in the double pulsar system PSR J0737–3039AB. By comparing the orbital parameters of PSR J1906+0746 with those of PSR J0737–3039AB, we conclude that both systems have a similar origin and evolution history, involving an e-capture process for forming the second-born NS, like in the case of PSR J0737–3039B. We expect the companion of PSR J1906+0746 to be a long-lived recycled pulsar with radio beams that currently cannot be observed from Earth. We suggest possible ways to detect its presence. To compare PSR J1906+0746 with PSR J0737–3039, we also present the mass distribution of eight pairs of double NSs and find that in double NSs the mass of the recycled pulsar is usually larger than that of the nonrecycled one, which may be the result of accretion.

Authors:
; ;  [1]; ;  [2];  [3];  [4]
  1. School of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China)
  2. National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)
  3. School of Physics and Electronic Sciences, Guizhou Normal University, Guiyang 550001 (China)
  4. Department of Physics, Xiangtan University, Xiangtan, 411105 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663956
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; EVOLUTION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MASS; MASS DISTRIBUTION; NEUTRON STARS; PULSARS

Citation Formats

Yang, Yi-Yan, Lingfu, Rong-Feng, Zhou, Zhu-Wen, Zhang, Cheng-Min, Li, Di, Wang, De-Hua, and Pan, Yuan-Yue, E-mail: yangyiyan@gznc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangcm@bao.ac.cn. Similarity of PSR J1906+0746 to PSR J0737–3039: a Candidate of a New Double Pulsar System?. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/185.
Yang, Yi-Yan, Lingfu, Rong-Feng, Zhou, Zhu-Wen, Zhang, Cheng-Min, Li, Di, Wang, De-Hua, & Pan, Yuan-Yue, E-mail: yangyiyan@gznc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangcm@bao.ac.cn. Similarity of PSR J1906+0746 to PSR J0737–3039: a Candidate of a New Double Pulsar System?. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/185.
Yang, Yi-Yan, Lingfu, Rong-Feng, Zhou, Zhu-Wen, Zhang, Cheng-Min, Li, Di, Wang, De-Hua, and Pan, Yuan-Yue, E-mail: yangyiyan@gznc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangcm@bao.ac.cn. Wed . "Similarity of PSR J1906+0746 to PSR J0737–3039: a Candidate of a New Double Pulsar System?". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/185.
@article{osti_22663956,
title = {Similarity of PSR J1906+0746 to PSR J0737–3039: a Candidate of a New Double Pulsar System?},
author = {Yang, Yi-Yan and Lingfu, Rong-Feng and Zhou, Zhu-Wen and Zhang, Cheng-Min and Li, Di and Wang, De-Hua and Pan, Yuan-Yue, E-mail: yangyiyan@gznc.edu.cn, E-mail: zhangcm@bao.ac.cn},
abstractNote = {PSR J1906+0746 is a nonrecycled strong magnetic field neutron star (NS), sharing the properties of the secondary-formed NS PSR J0737–3039B in the double pulsar system PSR J0737–3039AB. By comparing the orbital parameters of PSR J1906+0746 with those of PSR J0737–3039AB, we conclude that both systems have a similar origin and evolution history, involving an e-capture process for forming the second-born NS, like in the case of PSR J0737–3039B. We expect the companion of PSR J1906+0746 to be a long-lived recycled pulsar with radio beams that currently cannot be observed from Earth. We suggest possible ways to detect its presence. To compare PSR J1906+0746 with PSR J0737–3039, we also present the mass distribution of eight pairs of double NSs and find that in double NSs the mass of the recycled pulsar is usually larger than that of the nonrecycled one, which may be the result of accretion.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/185},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We investigate the formation of the double pulsar PSR J0737-3039 and examine its most likely progenitors, taking into account the most recent and all currently available observational constraints. We show that the most likely kick velocity and progenitor parameters depend strongly on the consideration of the full five-dimensional probability distribution function for the magnitude and direction of the kick velocity imparted to pulsar B at birth, the mass of pulsar B's presupernova helium star progenitor, and the presupernova orbital separation rather than marginalized one- or two-dimensional distributions for the kick velocity and progenitor mass. The priors that enter the analysismore » are the age of the system, the minimum helium star mass required to form a neutron star, the transverse systemic velocity, and the treatment of the unknown radial velocity. Since the latter cannot be measured observationally, we adopt a statistical approach and use theoretical radial-velocity distributions obtained from population synthesis calculations for coalescing double neutron stars. We find that when the minimum presupernova helium star mass required for neutron star formation is assumed to be 2.1 M{sub {center_dot}}, the most likely kick velocity ranges from 70 km s{sup -1} to 180 km s{sup -1}. When, on the other hand, masses lower than 2.1 M{sub {center_dot}} are allowed as neutron star progenitors, the most likely kick velocity can reach very low values (as low as a few km s{sup -1}), although the majority of the models still yield most likely kick velocities of 50 km s{sup -1} to 170 km s{sup -1}. Hence, we agree with Piran and Shaviv [T. Piran and N. J. Shaviv, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 051102 (2005).] that the observed system properties, including the low transverse systemic velocity, can indeed be compatible with low progenitor masses and low kick velocities. Equally important though, we show that this is not the only likely formation path of pulsar B, due to the role of different prior assumptions that are necessary in the analysis. Moreover, in contrast to earlier claims in the literature, we show that the proximity of the double pulsar to the Galactic plane and the small proper motion do not pose stringent constraints on the kick velocity and progenitor mass of pulsar B at all. Instead, the constraints imposed by the current orbital semimajor axis and eccentricity and the orbital dynamics of asymmetric supernova explosions turn out to be much more restrictive. We conclude that without further knowledge of the priors, the currently available observational constraints cannot be used to unambiguously favor a specific core-collapse and neutron star-formation mechanism. Both electron capture and neutrino-driven supernovae therefore remain viable formation mechanisms for pulsar B.« less
  • We present the first optical observations of the unique system J0737-3039 (composed of two pulsars, hereafter PSR-A and PSR-B). Ultra-deep optical observations, performed with the High Resolution Camera of the Advanced Camera for Surveys on board the Hubble Space Telescope, could not detect any optical emission from the system down to m{sub F435W} = 27.0 and m{sub F606W} = 28.3. The estimated optical flux limits are used to constrain the three-component (two thermal and one non-thermal) model recently proposed to reproduce the XMM-Newton X-ray spectrum. They suggest the presence of a break at low energies in the non-thermal power-law componentmore » of PSR-A and are compatible with the expected blackbody emission from the PSR-B surface. The corresponding efficiency of the optical emission from PSR-A's magnetosphere would be comparable to that of other Myr-old pulsars, thus suggesting that this parameter may not dramatically evolve over a timescale of a few Myr.« less
  • We report on detection of the double pulsar system J0737–3039 in the far-UV with the Advanced Camera for Surveys/Solar-blind Channel detector aboard Hubble Space Telescope. We measured the energy flux F = (4.6 ± 1.0) × 10{sup –17} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1} in the 1250-1550 Å band, which corresponds to the extinction-corrected luminosity L ≈ 1.5 × 10{sup 28} erg s{sup –1} for the distance d = 1.1 kpc and a plausible reddening E(B – V) = 0.1. If the detected emission comes from the entire surface of one of the neutron stars with a 13 km radius, the surface blackbody temperature is in themore » range T ≅ (2-5) × 10{sup 5} K for a reasonable range of interstellar extinction. Such a temperature requires an internal heating mechanism to operate in old neutron stars, or, less likely, it might be explained by heating of the surface of the less energetic Pulsar B by the relativistic wind of Pulsar A. If the far-ultraviolet emission is non-thermal (e.g., produced in the magnetosphere of Pulsar A), its spectrum exhibits a break between the UV and X-rays.« less
  • We report the Fermi Large Area Telescope discovery of {gamma}-ray pulsations from the 22.7 ms pulsar A in the double pulsar system J0737-3039A/B. This is the first mildly recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) detected in the GeV domain. The 2.7 s companion object PSR J0737-3039B is not detected in {gamma} rays. PSR J0737-3039A is a faint {gamma}-ray emitter, so that its spectral properties are only weakly constrained; however, its measured efficiency is typical of other MSPs. The two peaks of the {gamma}-ray light curve are separated by roughly half a rotation and are well offset from the radio and X-ray emission,more » suggesting that the GeV radiation originates in a distinct part of the magnetosphere from the other types of emission. From the modeling of the radio and the {gamma}-ray emission profiles and the analysis of radio polarization data, we constrain the magnetic inclination {alpha} and the viewing angle {zeta} to be close to 90 Degree-Sign , which is consistent with independent studies of the radio emission from PSR J0737-3039A. A small misalignment angle between the pulsar's spin axis and the system's orbital axis is therefore favored, supporting the hypothesis that pulsar B was formed in a nearly symmetric supernova explosion as has been discussed in the literature already.« less
  • Here, we report the Fermi Large Area Telescope discovery of γ-ray pulsations from the 22.7 ms pulsar A in the double pulsar system J0737–3039A/B. This is the first mildly recycled millisecond pulsar (MSP) detected in the GeV domain. The 2.7 s companion object PSR J0737–3039B is not detected in γ rays. PSR J0737–3039A is a faint γ-ray emitter, so that its spectral properties are only weakly constrained; however, its measured efficiency is typical of other MSPs. The two peaks of the γ-ray light curve are separated by roughly half a rotation and are well offset from the radio and X-raymore » emission, suggesting that the GeV radiation originates in a distinct part of the magnetosphere from the other types of emission. From the modeling of the radio and the γ-ray emission profiles and the analysis of radio polarization data, we constrain the magnetic inclination α and the viewing angle ζ to be close to 90°, which is consistent with independent studies of the radio emission from PSR J0737–3039A. In conclusion, a small misalignment angle between the pulsar's spin axis and the system's orbital axis is therefore favored, supporting the hypothesis that pulsar B was formed in a nearly symmetric supernova explosion as has been discussed in the literature already.« less