skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids

Abstract

The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veinsmore » of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.« less

Authors:
; ; ;  [1];  [2];  [3];  [4];  [5];  [6];  [7]
  1. Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC), Meteorites, Minor Bodies and Planetary Sciences Group, Campus UAB Bellaterra, c/Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Cerdanyola del Vallès (Barcelona) (Spain)
  2. Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)
  3. School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, 317 Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom)
  4. Institut für Geophysik und extraterrestrische Physik, Technische Universität Braunschweig, Mendelssohnstr. 3, D-38106 Braunschweig (Germany)
  5. Lagrange Laboratory, University of Nice, CNRS, Côte d’Azur Observatory (France)
  6. European Space Agency, European Space Astronomy Centre, P.O. Box 78, Villanueva de la Cañada E-28691 (Spain)
  7. Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA) and Departament de Física, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona, E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663943
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTEROIDS; CHONDRITES; COLOR; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; FRACTURE PROPERTIES; METEOROIDS; MINERALS; NASA; PARTICLE SIZE; POROSITY; VISIBLE RADIATION

Citation Formats

Moyano-Cambero, Carles E., Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M., Martínez-Jiménez, Marina, Lloro, Ivan, Pellicer, Eva, Williams, Iwan P., Blum, Jürgen, Michel, Patrick, Küppers, Michael, and Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/157.
Moyano-Cambero, Carles E., Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M., Martínez-Jiménez, Marina, Lloro, Ivan, Pellicer, Eva, Williams, Iwan P., Blum, Jürgen, Michel, Patrick, Küppers, Michael, & Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es. Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/157.
Moyano-Cambero, Carles E., Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M., Martínez-Jiménez, Marina, Lloro, Ivan, Pellicer, Eva, Williams, Iwan P., Blum, Jürgen, Michel, Patrick, Küppers, Michael, and Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es. Wed . "Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/157.
@article{osti_22663943,
title = {Nanoindenting the Chelyabinsk Meteorite to Learn about Impact Deflection Effects in asteroids},
author = {Moyano-Cambero, Carles E. and Trigo-Rodríguez, Josep M. and Martínez-Jiménez, Marina and Lloro, Ivan and Pellicer, Eva and Williams, Iwan P. and Blum, Jürgen and Michel, Patrick and Küppers, Michael and Sort, Jordi, E-mail: moyano@ice.csic.es, E-mail: trigo@ice.csic.es},
abstractNote = {The Chelyabinsk meteorite is a highly shocked, low porosity, ordinary chondrite, probably similar to S- or Q-type asteroids. Therefore, nanoindentation experiments on this meteorite allow us to obtain key data to understand the physical properties of near-Earth asteroids. Tests at different length scales provide information about the local mechanical properties of the minerals forming this meteorite: reduced Young’s modulus, hardness, elastic recovery, and fracture toughness. Those tests are also useful to understand the potential to deflect threatening asteroids using a kinetic projectile. We found that the differences in mechanical properties between regions of the meteorite, which increase or reduce the efficiency of impacts, are not a result of compositional differences. A low mean particle size, attributed to repetitive shock, can increase hardness, while low porosity promotes a higher momentum multiplication. Momentum multiplication is the ratio between the change in momentum of a target due to an impact, and the momentum of the projectile, and therefore, higher values imply more efficient impacts. In the Chelyabinsk meteorite, the properties of the light-colored lithology materials facilitate obtaining higher momentum multiplication values, compared to the other regions described for this meteorite. Also, we found a low value of fracture toughness in the shock-melt veins of Chelyabinsk, which would promote the ejection of material after an impact and therefore increase the momentum multiplication. These results are relevant to the growing interest in missions to test asteroid deflection, such as the recent collaboration between the European Space Agency and NASA, known as the Asteroid Impact and Deflection Assessment mission.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/157},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • Study of Chelyabinsk LL5 ordinary chondrite fragment with a light lithology and its fusion crust, fallen on February 15, 2013, in Russian Federation, was carried out using Mössbauer spectroscopy with a high velocity resolution. The Mössbauer spectra of the internal matter and fusion crust were fitted and all components were related to iron-bearing phases such as olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and chromite in the internal matter and olivine, pyroxene, troilite, Fe-Ni-Co alloy, and magnesioferrite in the fusion crust. A comparison of the content of different phases in the internal matter and in the fusion crust of this fragment showedmore » that ferric compounds resulted from olivine, pyroxene, and troilite combustion in the atmosphere.« less
  • Improving the constraints on the abundance of basaltic asteroids in the main asteroid belt is necessary for better understanding the thermal and collisional environment in the early solar system, for more rigorously identifying the genetic family for (4) Vesta, for determining the effectiveness of Yarkovsky/YORP in dispersing asteroid families, and for better quantifying the population of basaltic asteroids in the outer main belt (a > 2.5 AU) that is likely unrelated to (4) Vesta. Near-infrared (NIR) spectral observations in this work were obtained for the V{sub p}-type asteroids (2011) Veteraniya, (5875) Kuga, (8149) Ruff, (9147) Kourakuen, (9553) Colas, (15237) 1988 RL{sub 6},more » (31414) Rotaryusa, and (32940) 1995 UW{sub 4} during 2014 August/September utilizing the SpeX spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Spectral band parameter (band centers, band area ratios) and mineralogical analysis (pyroxene chemistry) for each average asteroid NIR reflectance spectrum suggest a howardite–eucrite–diogenite meteorite analog for each asteroid. (5875) Kuga is most closely associated with the eucrite meteorites, (31414) Rotaryusa is most closely associated with the diogenites, and the remaining other six asteroids are most closely associated with the howardite meteorites. Along with their orbital locations in the inner main belt and in the vicinity of (4) Vesta, the existing evidence suggests that these eight V{sub p}-type asteroids are also likely Vestoids.« less
  • Abstract not provided.
  • The July 17 rupture of a plutonium separation column at the Chelyabinsk-65 facility of the Mayak chemical production enterprise caused no harm to workers or the local population, and there was no contamination of the territory around the plant, according to an inquiry commission of the Russian state committee for emergencies. Examinations of 17 people in the workshop at the time of the incident have revealed no traces of plutonium in their bodies. Monitoring to a distance of 10 km around the plant found no deviation from previously registered radiation levels. The event has been rated as a level 1more » incident on the International Nuclear Even Scale.« less
  • Success of a hydraulic-fracture treatment depends on selection of the proper fracturing fluid, among other things. This study reviews the evaluation of hydraulic properties of fracturing fluids. Present-day fracturing fluids are classed as Newtonian, polymer solutions, cross-linked polymer solutions, emulsions, micellar solutions, and gelled organic liquids in solution with a liquefied gas. Fracturing fluids exhibit many different forms of time-independent and time-dependent non-Newtonian fluid behavior. New experimental techniques are required in many instances to evaluate these fluids.A fracturing fluid should be compatible with both rock-matrix material and natural fluids contained within matrix pores. Sometimes salt solutions or acidic water basemore » fluids are used to help prevent damage to the rock matrix by clay swelling. In the case of extreme water sensitivity, an oil-base fluid might be used rather than a water-base fluid. (24 refs.)« less