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Title: Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks

Abstract

A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after 10{sup 4} orbits, or 2.5 Myr when scaled to the parameters of Oph IRS 48 (a significant fraction of its age), the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from one another, appear as a single large feature. A defining characteristic of a disk with a dead zone edge is that an asymmetric feature is accompaniedmore » by a ring of dust located about twice as far from the central star.« less

Authors:
 [1]; ; ;  [2]
  1. Cornell Center for Astrophysics and Planetary Science, Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
  2. Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663856
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 835; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASYMMETRY; AXIAL SYMMETRY; DISTRIBUTION; DUSTS; FEEDBACK; HYDRODYNAMICS; MASS; ORBITS; PLANETS; PROTOPLANETS; RESOLUTION; RINGS; SIMULATION; STARS; TRAPPING; TWO-DIMENSIONAL CALCULATIONS; VORTICES

Citation Formats

Miranda, Ryan, Li, Hui, Li, Shengtai, and Jin, Sheng, E-mail: rjm456@cornell.edu. Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/118.
Miranda, Ryan, Li, Hui, Li, Shengtai, & Jin, Sheng, E-mail: rjm456@cornell.edu. Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/118.
Miranda, Ryan, Li, Hui, Li, Shengtai, and Jin, Sheng, E-mail: rjm456@cornell.edu. Wed . "Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/118.
@article{osti_22663856,
title = {Long-lived Dust Asymmetries at Dead Zone Edges in Protoplanetary Disks},
author = {Miranda, Ryan and Li, Hui and Li, Shengtai and Jin, Sheng, E-mail: rjm456@cornell.edu},
abstractNote = {A number of transition disks exhibit significant azimuthal asymmetries in thermal dust emission. One possible origin for these asymmetries is dust trapping in vortices formed at the edges of dead zones. We carry out high-resolution, two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of this scenario, including the effects of dust feedback. We find that, although feedback weakens the vortices and slows down the process of dust accumulation, the dust distribution in the disk can nonetheless remain asymmetric for many thousands of orbits. We show that even after 10{sup 4} orbits, or 2.5 Myr when scaled to the parameters of Oph IRS 48 (a significant fraction of its age), the dust is not dispersed into an axisymmetric ring, in contrast to the case of a vortex formed by a planet. This is because accumulation of mass at the dead zone edge constantly replenishes the vortex, preventing it from being fully destroyed. We produce synthetic dust emission images using our simulation results. We find that multiple small clumps of dust may be distributed azimuthally. These clumps, if not resolved from one another, appear as a single large feature. A defining characteristic of a disk with a dead zone edge is that an asymmetric feature is accompanied by a ring of dust located about twice as far from the central star.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/835/2/118},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 2,
volume = 835,
place = {United States},
year = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Wed Feb 01 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}
  • We study dust capture by vortices and its long-term consequences in global two-fluid inviscid disk simulations using a new polar grid code RoSSBi. We perform the longest integrations so far, several hundred disk orbits, at the highest resolution attainable in global disk simulations with dust, namely, 2048 × 4096 grid points. We vary a wide range of dust parameters, most notably the initial dust-to-gas ratio ϵ varies in the range of 10{sup −4}–10{sup −2}. Irrespective of the value of ϵ , we find rapid concentration of the dust inside vortices, reaching dust-to-gas ratios of the order of unity inside themore » vortex. We present an analytical model that describes this dust capture process very well, finding consistent results for all dust parameters. A vortex streaming instability develops, which invariably causes vortex destruction. After vortex dissipation large-scale dust rings encompassing a disk annulus form in most cases, which sustain very high dust concentration, approaching ratios of the order of unity; they persist as long as the duration of the simulations. They are sustained by a streaming instability, which manifests itself in high-density dust clumps at various scales. When vortices are particularly long-lived, rings do not form but dust clumps inside vortices can survive a long time and would likely undergo collapse by gravitational instability. Rings encompass almost an Earth mass of solid material, while even larger masses of dust do accumulate inside vortices in the earlier stage. We argue that rapid planetesimal formation would occur in the dust clumps inside the vortices as well as in the post-vortex rings.« less
  • Transporting solids of different sizes is an essential process in the evolution of protoplanetary disks and planet formation. Large solids are supposed to drift inward; high-temperature minerals found in comets are assumed to have been transported outward. From low-gravity experiments on parabolic flights, we studied the light-induced erosion of dusty bodies caused by a solid-state greenhouse effect and photophoresis within a dust bed's upper layers. The gravity levels studied were 0.16g, 0.38g, 1g, and 1.7g. The light flux during the experiments was 12 {+-} 2 kW m{sup -2} and the ambient pressure was 6 {+-} 0.9 mbar. Light-induced erosion ismore » strongly gravity dependent, which is in agreement with a developed model. In particular for small dusty bodies ((sub)-planetesimals), efficient erosion is possible at the optically thin inner edges of protoplanetary disks. Light-induced erosion prevents significant parts of a larger body from moving too close to the host star and being subsequently accreted. The small dust produced continues to be subject to photophoresis and is partially transported upward and outward over the surface of the disk; the resulting small dust particles are observed over the disk's lifetime. The fraction of eroded dust participates in subsequent cycles of growth during planetesimal formation. Another fraction of dust might be collected by a body of planetary size if this body is already present close to the disk edge. Either way, light-induced erosion is an efficient recycling process in protoplanetary disks.« less
  • The expectation that aerodynamic drag will force the solids in a gas-rich protoplanetary disk to spiral in toward the host star on short timescales is one of the fundamental problems in planet formation theory. The nominal efficiency of this radial drift process is in conflict with observations, suggesting that an empirical calibration of solid transport mechanisms in a disk is highly desirable. However, the fact that both radial drift and grain growth produce a similar particle size segregation in a disk (such that larger particles are preferentially concentrated closer to the star) makes it difficult to disentangle a clear signaturemore » of drift alone. We highlight a new approach, by showing that radial drift leaves a distinctive 'fingerprint' in the dust surface density profile that is directly accessible to current observational facilities. Using an analytical framework for dust evolution, we demonstrate that the combined effects of drift and (viscous) gas drag naturally produce a sharp outer edge in the dust distribution (or, equivalently, a sharp decrease in the dust-to-gas mass ratio). This edge feature forms during the earliest phase in the evolution of disk solids, before grain growth in the outer disk has made much progress, and is preserved over longer timescales when both growth and transport effects are more substantial. The key features of these analytical models are reproduced in detailed numerical simulations, and are qualitatively consistent with recent millimeter-wave observations that find gas/dust size discrepancies and steep declines in dust continuum emission in the outer regions of protoplanetary disks.« less
  • It has been suggested that the transition between magnetorotationally active and dead zones in protoplanetary disks should be prone to the excitation of vortices via Rossby wave instability (RWI). However, the only numerical evidence for this has come from alpha disk models, where the magnetic field evolution is not followed, and the effect of turbulence is parameterized by Laplacian viscosity. We aim to establish the phenomenology of the flow in the transition in three-dimensional resistive-magnetohydrodynamical models. We model the transition by a sharp jump in resistivity, as expected in the inner dead zone boundary, using the PENCIL CODE to simulatemore » the flow. We find that vortices are readily excited in the dead side of the transition. We measure the mass accretion rate finding similar levels of Reynolds stress at the dead and active zones, at the {alpha} Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -2} level. The vortex sits in a pressure maximum and does not migrate, surviving until the end of the simulation. A pressure maximum in the active zone also triggers the RWI. The magnetized vortex that results should be disrupted by parasitical magneto-elliptic instabilities, yet it subsists in high resolution. This suggests that either the parasitic modes are still numerically damped or that the RWI supplies vorticity faster than they can destroy it. We conclude that the resistive transition between the active and dead zones in the inner regions of protoplanetary disks, if sharp enough, can indeed excite vortices via RWI. Our results lend credence to previous works that relied on the alpha-disk approximation, and caution against the use of overly reduced azimuthal coverage on modeling this transition.« less
  • The formation scenario of a gapped disk, i.e., transitional disk, and its asymmetry is still under debate. Proposed scenarios such as disk-planet interaction, photoevaporation, grain growth, anticyclonic vortex, eccentricity, and their combinations would result in different radial distributions of the gas and the small (sub-μm size) and large (millimeter size) dust grains as well as asymmetric structures in a disk. Optical/near-infrared (NIR) imaging observations and (sub-)millimeter interferometry can trace small and large dust grains, respectively; therefore multi-wavelength observations could help elucidate the origin of complicated structures of a disk. Here we report Submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum atmore » 1.3 mm and {sup 12}CO J = 2 → 1 line emission of the pre-transitional protoplanetary disk around the solar-mass star PDS 70. PDS 70, a weak-lined T Tauri star, exhibits a gap in the scattered light from its disk with a radius of ∼65 AU at NIR wavelengths. However, we found a larger gap in the disk with a radius of ∼80 AU at 1.3 mm. Emission from all three disk components (the gas and the small and large dust grains) in images exhibits a deficit in brightness in the central region of the disk, in particular, the dust disk in small and large dust grains has asymmetric brightness. The contrast ratio of the flux density in the dust continuum between the peak position to the opposite side of the disk reaches 1.4. We suggest the asymmetries and different gap radii of the disk around PDS 70 are potentially formed by several (unseen) accreting planets inducing dust filtration.« less