skip to main content
OSTI.GOV title logo U.S. Department of Energy
Office of Scientific and Technical Information

Title: Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart

Abstract

In this series of papers we have presented the results of a spectroscopic survey of luminous stars in the nearby spirals M31 and M33. Here, we present spectroscopy of 132 additional stars. Most have emission-line spectra, including luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs, Fe ii emission line stars, the B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. Many of these objects are spectroscopically similar and are often confused with each other. We examine their similarities and differences and propose the following guidelines that can be used to help distinguish these stars in future work. (1) The B[e] supergiants have emission lines of [O i] and [Fe ii] in their spectra. Most of the spectroscopically confirmed sgB[e] stars also have warm circumstellar dust in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (2) Confirmed LBVs do not have the [O i] emission lines in their spectra. Some LBVs have [Fe ii] emission lines, but not all. Their SEDs show free–free emission in the near-infrared but no evidence for warm dust . Their most important and defining characteristic is the S Dor-type variability. (3) The warm hypergiants spectroscopically resemble the LBVs in their dense wind state and the B[e] supergiants. However, they are very dusty. Somemore » have [Fe ii] and [O i] emission in their spectra like the sgB[e] stars, but are distinguished by their A- and F-type absorption-line spectra. In contrast, the B[e] supergiant spectra have strong continua and few if any apparent absorption lines. Candidate LBVs should share the spectral characteristics of the confirmed LBVs with low outflow velocities and the lack of warm circumstellar dust.« less

Authors:
; ;  [1];  [2];  [3]
  1. Minnesota Institute for Astrophysics, 116 Church Street SE, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)
  2. University of Illinois Springfield, Springfield, IL 62703 (United States)
  3. Astronomical Institute, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22663845
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 836; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; DUSTS; EMISSION; ENERGY SPECTRA; GALAXIES; LUMINOSITY; RECOMMENDATIONS; SPECTROSCOPY; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERGIANT STARS; VARIABLE STARS

Citation Formats

Humphreys, Roberta M., Gordon, Michael S., Hahn, David, Martin, John C., and Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart. United States: N. p., 2017. Web. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA582E.
Humphreys, Roberta M., Gordon, Michael S., Hahn, David, Martin, John C., & Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu. Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart. United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA582E.
Humphreys, Roberta M., Gordon, Michael S., Hahn, David, Martin, John C., and Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu. Fri . "Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart". United States. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/AA582E.
@article{osti_22663845,
title = {Luminous and Variable Stars in M31 and M33. IV. Luminous Blue Variables, Candidate LBVs, B[e] Supergiants, and the Warm Hypergiants: How to Tell Them Apart},
author = {Humphreys, Roberta M. and Gordon, Michael S. and Hahn, David and Martin, John C. and Weis, Kerstin, E-mail: roberta@umn.edu},
abstractNote = {In this series of papers we have presented the results of a spectroscopic survey of luminous stars in the nearby spirals M31 and M33. Here, we present spectroscopy of 132 additional stars. Most have emission-line spectra, including luminous blue variables (LBVs) and candidate LBVs, Fe ii emission line stars, the B[e] supergiants, and the warm hypergiants. Many of these objects are spectroscopically similar and are often confused with each other. We examine their similarities and differences and propose the following guidelines that can be used to help distinguish these stars in future work. (1) The B[e] supergiants have emission lines of [O i] and [Fe ii] in their spectra. Most of the spectroscopically confirmed sgB[e] stars also have warm circumstellar dust in their spectral energy distributions (SEDs). (2) Confirmed LBVs do not have the [O i] emission lines in their spectra. Some LBVs have [Fe ii] emission lines, but not all. Their SEDs show free–free emission in the near-infrared but no evidence for warm dust . Their most important and defining characteristic is the S Dor-type variability. (3) The warm hypergiants spectroscopically resemble the LBVs in their dense wind state and the B[e] supergiants. However, they are very dusty. Some have [Fe ii] and [O i] emission in their spectra like the sgB[e] stars, but are distinguished by their A- and F-type absorption-line spectra. In contrast, the B[e] supergiant spectra have strong continua and few if any apparent absorption lines. Candidate LBVs should share the spectral characteristics of the confirmed LBVs with low outflow velocities and the lack of warm circumstellar dust.},
doi = {10.3847/1538-4357/AA582E},
journal = {Astrophysical Journal},
number = 1,
volume = 836,
place = {United States},
year = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017},
month = {Fri Feb 10 00:00:00 EST 2017}
}